The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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Is the FRW metric describing the shape of the universe or the shape of the expansion applied to the universe?

Is it (the output, i.e, spherical, flat, hyperbolic) describing the physical shape of the universe and its curvature at any given instance of time or is it describing the shape of the expansion ...
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1answer
346 views

Could the unobservable universe have curvature (be spherical)?

What prevents the unobservable universe from being a continuously enlarging sphere due to the inflating bubble universes? Our observable universe being close to flat could support such a scenario?
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5answers
312 views

Age of universe estimates

I was recently involved in a discussion on a sister site regarding how tightly coupled Physics is with the age of the Universe (and Earth). I believe that the Earth and the Universe are both billions ...
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1answer
418 views

Why is the universe described in terms of Euclidean space and not Minkowski spacetime?

The universe is described as an infinite Euclidean space in cosmology. Why isn't it treated as Minkowski spacetime?
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2answers
951 views

How did the inflaton field “add” energy to the universe?

How did inflation add energy to the universe? What mechanism did this occur by? In other words, where did that energy come from? Was it due to the quantum fluctuation (or that scalar field rolling ...
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2answers
347 views

Why does inflation (the inflaton field) push Omega down closer to zero (flatten the universe)?

I know that in our particular case the inflaton field expanded the volume of the universe while simultaneously maintaining a mass-energy density close to the critical density all the while, thus the ...
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2answers
2k views

Zero energy universe

Regarding this thread: http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=506985 Why is the idea that the total energy in the universe "zero" so popular (re: Laurence Krauss) and why is the flatness of ...
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1answer
530 views

How did the energy/entropy/volume/pressure/temperature relationship exist at the Big Bang and how did it evolve thereafter?

According to the current Big Bang with inflation cosmological model? I was under the mistaken impression that there was very low volume, very high temperature/pressure, very low entropy and the Big ...
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2answers
2k views

Hubble time, the age of the Universe and expansion rate

The Hubble time is about 14 billion years. The estimated current age of the Universe is about 13.7 billion years. Is the reason these two time are so close (a) a coincidence, or (b) a reflection that ...
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2answers
318 views

How does the critical density decide the fate of the Universe?

Trying to teach myself cosmology. Given the Friedmann equation $$\left[\frac{1}{R}\frac{dR}{dt}\right]^{2}=\frac{8\pi G}{3}\rho-\frac{kc^{2}}{R^{2}}$$ and the critical density ...
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1answer
130 views

Earth's beginnings and early years, Re radioactive decay or not

It is said that the Earth and solar system are 4.6 billion years old. Presumably this date is achieved from radioactive decay. If this is the case, since most of the radioactive elements would have, ...
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1answer
202 views

Very basic question about empty universe

I'm trying to understand the empty universe model. My first textbook (which doesn't cover the empty universe) gives the Friedmann equation as $$\left[\frac{1}{R}\frac{dR}{dt}\right]^{2}=\frac{8\pi ...
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3answers
461 views

Shouldn't stars disappear from our view due to expansion?

The currently accepted theory of the expansion of the universe would suggest that for any point in the universe, there is a 'boundary' (somewhat like the Schwarzschild radius) beyond which it cannot ...
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7answers
3k views

Are we inside a black hole?

I was surprised to only recently notice that An object of any density can be large enough to fall within its own Schwarzschild radius. Of course! It turns out that supermassive black holes at ...
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3answers
292 views

Why doesn't dark energy vary with time?

Trying to teach myself the basics of cosmology. I can see why, in an expanding universe, radiation and matter density, and radiation and matter pressure vary with time. But why is it assumed that dark ...
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3answers
1k views

How can we be so sure the universe has 3 dimensions?

I'm just a layman here so please bear with me if I don't get all the words or theories by correct name or whatever. I hope it will be clear enough what my question is. Here goes: When I read articles ...
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1answer
253 views

Are there any theories or suggestions for how the multiverse came into existence?

I've just seen a documentary about the multiverse. This provides an explanation for where the big bang came from. But it leaves me wondering: how did the multiverse come into existence? Because this ...
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1answer
167 views

Fine Tuned Universe

Is the fine tuning that cosmologists talk about (that our Universe is fine tuned for intelligent life) is the same as the fine tuning of the squared mass parameter of the Higgs in the Standard Model? ...
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4answers
2k views

Does the universe have a center?

If the big bang was the birth of everything, and the big bang was an event in the sense that it had a location and a time (time 0), wouldn't that mean that our universe has a center? Where was the ...
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3answers
633 views

Why does large curvature of spacetime imply high temperature?

I`ve just stumbled about a sentence which says that high curvature of spacetime implies that any matter present is at high temperature. This somehow confuses me, so my probably dumb question(s) are: ...
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1answer
61 views

Could there be a sort of “Molecular Destiny”?

Let's say we start with the Big Bang. Every bit of matter started from this event. Therefore, given EVERY variable (every particle, movements of particles, weights, times, etc) and an INFINITE amount ...
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2answers
383 views

Why does the homogeneity of the universe require inflation?

They say inflation must have occured because the universe is very homogeneous. Otherwise, how could one part of the universe reach the same temperature as another when the distance between the parts ...
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3answers
366 views

Where does the light of the Big Bang come from?

I'm wondering whether the residual light of the Big Bang comes from one particular direction and what possibilities do we have to detect its position?
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1answer
191 views

What is behind the cosmological horizon barrier?

I'm wondering what is behind the cosmological horizon barrier?
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3answers
317 views

Can extra dimensions be too large to be observable

String theory postulates 6 extra dimension, all too small to be observed. The best description of a small dimension is that of an ant walking on a flagpole: The ant observes that the flagpole allows ...
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2answers
1k views

Have red shifted photons lost energy and where did it go?

I think the title says it. Did expansion of the universe steal the energy somehow?
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2answers
106 views

Cosmic radiation cutoff at LOW energies?

The energy spectrum of the cosmic radiation (not CMB) is limited to both sides. I know about the GZK-cutoff at high energies. Basically the interaction probability for photons of energies above 10^20 ...
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2answers
313 views

Quantum physics before the observer and relic interferences

It is known that the concept of an observer plays important role in quantum mechanics. In interpretations with collapse only the observer can trigger the wavefunction collapse. From this naturally ...
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0answers
57 views

Status of large-scale structure formation within cosmology today

Since the CMB results of the past decade, would it be fair to say that the consensus among cosmologists is that cosmic strings are no longer considered as a (major) source for density perturbations? ...
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2answers
132 views

How to test whether galaxies are moving away from each other in a static background or whether space is being created beween them?

Observations show that galaxies are moving away from one another on the macroscopic scale. Now, scientists interpret this by saying this happens not because galaxies are really moving away from each ...
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4answers
492 views

Did really everything begin with a state with very low entropy?

As emphasized by Penrose many years ago, cosmology can only make sense if the world started in a state of exceptionally low entropy. The low entropy starting point is the ultimate reason that the ...
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2answers
431 views

What will we see between the CMB and the current oldest object seen?

The cosmic background radiation (CMB) is estimated to be from 13.7 billion years ago (BYA), and very shortly after the big bang compared to that time frame. The oldest coherent objects we've detected ...
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1answer
567 views

What are the theoretical explanations behind the “no-boundary condition” in cosmology?

In his book "The Grand Design" on page 167-173 Stephen Hawking explains how one can get rid of the so called "time zero issue", meaning by this the very special initial state needed for inflation to ...
8
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1answer
387 views

Was the universe a black hole at the beginning?

Big bang cosmology, as far as I understand it, says that the universe was super hot and super dense and super small. It looks like that all the current matter, seen and unseen, were compressed to ...
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1answer
2k views

What did Hawking mean? 'Time started at the big bang'. Book suggestions please [closed]

After writing down this question, I have come to realize that. What I really want is reading materials on the questions below. Before the big bang there was no such thing as 'time' (Steven Hawking on ...
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1answer
263 views

Does the dark matter halo rotate with the galaxy?

If the dark matter halo is stationary related to the arms of the galaxy then tidal effects should slow the galaxy rotation. If it rotates with the normal matter in the galaxy then shouldn't it ...
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2answers
303 views

How to concile flat spacetime and big bang?

After reading How do we resolve a flat spacetime and the cosmological principle? I still remain perplex. Please excuse my ignorance and try explaining to me : I thought that basically, when we ...
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2answers
651 views

Can the expansion space time reverse itself and contract the same way?

If there's a mechanism for space-time expanding faster than the speed of light, is there an example of It contracting in the same manner? If whatever mechanism is causing it to expand, can the ...
2
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1answer
573 views

Superluminal expansion of the early universe how is this possible?

Is this a postulate? I get the expansion of the universe, the addition of discrete bits of space time between me and a distant galaxy, until very distant parts of the universe are moving relative to ...
2
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2answers
220 views

What are the limitations of the FLRW metric?

I was wondering, given how in any other area of life making an explosion spherically symmetric is more or less impossible is there any reason to expect that the universe is? I appreciate that the FLRW ...
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1answer
98 views

Do Galactic Black Holes and Extra-Solar Planets change the mass balance of the universe?

With all the recent discoveries of supermassive black holes being at the center of nearly every galaxy, and the proposed "at least one planet" around (probably) every star. Does this affect the ...
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1answer
308 views

Hydrostatic equilibrium of a star derivation

I've been told to revise the derivation that proves $\frac{\mathrm{d}P}{\mathrm{d}r} =\frac{GM(r)p(r)}{r^2}$ where brackets indicate a function of, P is pressure and p is density. Rather helpfully he ...
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2answers
310 views

Why is it concluded that the cosmos is expanding when in fact the observations are for events further back in time?

Why is it concluded that the cosmos is expanding at an ever increasing rate when looking further out and therefore further back in time? Surely, if the time were reversed to play forwards, the ...
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2answers
319 views

How is causal patch complementarity compatible with behavior during inflation?

Causal patch complementarity is the conjecture that in de Sitter space with a positive cosmological constant, the states within the causal patch are sufficient to fully describe the universe with the ...
3
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1answer
130 views

Why is cosmological acceleration expressed in terms of an energy density?

In the articles that I have (tried to) read, acceleration ends up being expressed as a dimensionless constant (omega-lambda) or else occasionally in terms of a "dark" energy density. Presumably one ...
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0answers
68 views

How is it possible to measure expansion of universe [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why does space expansion not expand matter? If according to Hubble's law space the expanding then shouldn't everything else along with the space expand and we should not ...
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1answer
83 views

Will the universe reach zero mass?

I was reading Phil Plait's 'Death from the skies' where it describes the fate of the universe. It describes the period from 10^90 years to infinity as the "dark age" when all the of the black holes ...
2
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1answer
430 views

How is the expansion of space itself explained in LQG?

To explain the expansion of space I have often heard people saying that space is continuously created. This picture is usually applied to cosmological scales but I`m nevertheless curious if some ...
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1answer
334 views

how many times have the first photons lapped the universe?

I'm not really interested in the actual number of times, but rather an explanation of a closed Universe. How do we still measure the background radiation of the Big Bang? Those electromagnetic waves ...
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0answers
13 views

Topics in particle cosmology [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Topics in particle cosmology I am interested in learning more about this interdisciplinary approach. 1) What are some of the top questions in particle cosmology (e.g ...