The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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WIMP dark matter annihilation rate equation (approximation)?

WIMP is a possible dark matter candidates, which self-annihilates. What is the WIMP annihilation rate, as a function of density? Most sources state this scales as $\rho^2$, (density squared), but ...
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1answer
41 views

Speed distribution of objects in the universe

If we pick a reference frame where, for example, our planet is standing still (although it should be irrelevant), what would the speed distribution of all objects in the universe look like? For the ...
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6answers
662 views

How Does Hubble's Expansion Affect Two Rope-Tied Galaxies?

Suppose we have two galaxies that are sufficiently far apart so that the distance between them increases due to Hubble's expansion. If I were to connect these two galaxies with a rope, would there be ...
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0answers
20 views

The universe is said to have begun as a singularity, but how do we know nothing else existed? [duplicate]

When I imagine the big bang, I first imagine a tiny ball surrounded by black void. Then the ball explodes and the universe begins. I assume most physicists have the same basic idea. But how do we ...
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0answers
49 views

Modeling of Big Bang [duplicate]

Well, I’m just an ordinary High School passed student. I had passion towards space-time- relativity and other things related with physics :D I have been watching theories of physics like Big Bang from ...
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4answers
4k views

Why does a flat universe imply an infinite universe?

This article claims that because the universe appears to be flat, it must be infinite. I've heard this idea mentioned in a few other places, but they never explain the reasoning at all.
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1answer
36 views

How does space expansion affect cosmic rays?

As high energy protons travel through expanding space do we measure some physical difference depending on how far they travel before reaching us?
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1answer
37 views

Equations for Big Bang expansion, distance and energy

On the back page of the CPEP poster “The History and Fate of the Universe” a table gives distance scale (size), temperature, and energy (radiation) for seven expansion times (10-43 sec to now). ...
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3answers
49 views

Is there any situation in which a primordial black hole-sized black hole form AFTER the “Big Bang?”

I have seen that primordial black holes may have formed at the start of the universe due to the density of matter. So, is there any way in which our current Universe could spawn a non-stellar mass ...
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24 views

time as consequence of hadronics [on hold]

it has occurred to me that time is solely consequence of non-electric fields, with latest work being reading about «anapole» cite: Simple theory may explain dark matter due to ...
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1answer
143 views

Spiral galaxies and gravity lenses

Spiral Galaxies must have a great deal more mass than elliptical galaxies of the same size in order to account for the flat velocity curve. I've seen references of eight to ten times the visible ...
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1answer
48 views

What is Drake equation?

I was reading an article on aliens, where I found something called Drake equation. I tried to understand it, but just couldn't get it in my head, as I belong to class 11. So, can anyone explain me it ...
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2answers
93 views

Can anyone tell me the name of this constant?

I was watching a TV program about cosmology (I can't remember which or how old it was). In it, it mentioned a fundamental number (which I'm assuming is a constant, but that's not necessarily true). ...
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0answers
27 views

Does the Big Bang Theory explain about the formation and destruction of matter? [duplicate]

I read here here that, The Big Bang theory explains how the universe was created. Even though it was unable to explain that how everything in the universe did came to existence from no matter state ...
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0answers
189 views

Does the radius of the Universe correspond to its total entropy?

I heard a claim that due to holographic principle, the surface area of the cosmic horizon corresponds to the universe's total entropy. As such the initial state had zero surface area and later ...
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1answer
64 views

Fractional number of particles in the universe?

Is it possible, that the metagalaxy contains a fractional (non whole) number of particles or fractional number of a particular kind of particles (such as electrons)? Sorry, if my question is stupid, ...
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1answer
103 views

How can the Hubble telescope see the light from galaxies that are millions of light years distant?

The Hubble Space Telescope is in the news every now and then. How can it photograph galaxies that are millions of light years from Earth? We can understand that light comes from galaxy and Hubble ...
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2answers
188 views

Quantum entanglement on cosmological scales

This may be a foolish question given my limited understanding of QM but here it is. As I understand quantum entanglement basically means that two particles evolve as a single "unit", i.e., are ...
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3answers
289 views

What is the exact meaning of homogeneity in cosmology?

I understand that, in general, homogeneity is the physical attribute of being uniform in composition (" of the same form at every point"), but I'm slightly confused when it is used in cosmology as ...
14
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0answers
503 views

Do intergalactic magnetic fields imply an Open Universe?

According to a paper on the arXiv (now published in Phys Rev D), they do. How credible is this result? The abstract says: The detection of magnetic fields at high redshifts, and in empty ...
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2answers
115 views

How do we know that the CMBR is the oldest light?

How do we know that the CMBR is the oldest light which we can see? Is it based just on the facts 1.that waves redshift with expanding space, and 2.predictions of the big bang theory; Or is there a way ...
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2answers
110 views

Could we be on the inside of a concave hollow universe?

Recently I was discussing this theory again (a little drunk, I admit) and then tried to find answers, but couldn't find anything satisfying. There is a theory (or several theories) that we could be ...
3
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2answers
230 views

How confident are we that mass is not being lost in the universe?

After reading about the latest super-massive black hole in Nature 518, 512–515 (26 February 2015), I couldn't help but wonder if the accelerating expansion is a result of mass being lost. My ...
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1answer
70 views

Are time and space interchangeable? [closed]

Mass and energy are interchangeable. Does that mean time and space are interchangeable too? Reason for question: The only difference I can comprehend between matter and energy is that energy has no ...
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2answers
136 views

Tachyonic field

i'm working on a paper about symmetron cosmology. symmetron is a scalar field that by its symmetry breaking can explain the dark energy. the action is: ans A , V are assumed to be: where M ...
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0answers
22 views

Singular isothermal density distribution

Does anyone know where the Singular isothermal density distribution $$ \rho(r)=\frac{\sigma_{V}^{2}}{2\pi\,G\,r^{2}} $$ or how it was derived. Are there any good references on how this equation was ...
3
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1answer
78 views

Do photons have six degrees of freedom?

Calculations involving pressure and volume relationships of photon gas during the cosmologic expansion of the universe posit an adiabatic cooling process with a heat capacity ration of 4/3. This ratio ...
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2answers
54 views

Is there a proof that space expanding produces observers at all points that see what we see?

I know that galaxies are moving away from us, and so can see that it's intuitive that if space was expanding, then the astronomical observations from Earth would be the same as at all other points in ...
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2answers
90 views

How do we know the expansion of the universe is “of space” and not “in space” or “into space” or another less intuitive arrangement?

How do we know the expansion of the universe is "of space" and not "in space" or "into space" or another less intuitive arrangement? For example, what implicit and explicit assumptions underlie the ...
3
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1answer
58 views

Does Big Bang Cosmology imply/require infinite space?

The reason I am asking this question is because if all points in space observe recession of galaxies the same as we do from Earth, the universe would have to be infinite (or a closed sphere in 4D or ...
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1answer
52 views

Since space expands (and can theoretically contract) faster than light, does that mean that in a big crunch information could travel FTL?

Layperson here. In a theoretical big crunch with space contracting faster than the speed of light, would information be travelling faster than speed of light? Because the points A and B themselves ...
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2answers
93 views

Isn't the accelerating expansion of the universe intuitive?

I have a question about accelerating expansion of the universe. My understanding is that Hubble said the farther our we look into the universe, the higher the redshift, therefore the faster things ...
3
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2answers
137 views

Is entropy absolute (as in absolute temperature)?

Following this question on the Entropy at the Big Bang where I asked: Since Entropy always increases (in general); its expected that the entropy at the beginning of the universe should be the ...
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0answers
19 views

Evolution of dark matter and gas temperature

So I have recently watched a simulation of dark matter density and gas temperature evolution in a universe. However I couldn't find description of under what assumptions it was was made and what it is ...
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2answers
148 views

If the universe is expanding will gravitational attraction eventually go to zero?

Let's assume that we prove that dark matter exists (after all, only about 4 percent of the entire universal mass is atoms, and 22% dark matter, 74% dark energy (I think I got the numbers right)). ...
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4answers
451 views

How long does it take for expanding space to double in size?

I have been reading about Hubble's constant and trying to make 'sense' of the theory of the expanding Universe. Is is possible that space in the universe expands uniformly? If so, absent of other ...
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2answers
121 views

Why is universe expanding?

Okay, this question may sound silly: base on the observation Besides an expanding universe, would there be other possibilities? Would it be possible, say, there exists a fundamental repelling ...
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2answers
65 views

Restrictions on theories which describe particle which is the dark matter candidate

Lets have theory which describes (cold) dark matter candidate. I know two cosmological (not astrophysical) restrictions for particle: its lifetime has to be larger than the lifetime of the Universe, ...
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2answers
136 views

How to understand the lifespan of large-scale cosmological structures?

When a star is said to live for 1 billion years, is that relative to the 'average cosmological time unit' or local time in the star's gravitational field? Also, if the sun is said to have 5 billion ...
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3answers
7k views

Why didn't the Big Bang create heavy elements?

In the case of a supernova explosion it is possible to create heavy elements through fusion. Supernovae have a tremendous amount of energy in a very small volume but not as much energy per volume as ...
5
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3answers
751 views

Big bang and time

I heard Carl Sagan talking about the Universe 15 Billion years ago, and the Big Bang. He made the statement that it was the biggest explosion of all time (at first I thought this a subtle pun). This ...
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2answers
105 views

Is it plausible for spacetime to be shaped something like a torus? [duplicate]

I have heard three theories for how space-time is shaped, flat, sphere-like, or saddle-like. Flat is the most likely, as all our measurements implies that space time has curvature close to 0. Is it ...
6
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2answers
159 views

Is most of the matter in the observable universe within galaxies?

Do we know, either through observations or through theory driven computer simulations, the location of the majority of the visible matter in the observable universe? That is, is it located within ...
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1answer
37 views

Can you compare curvatures in space, spacetime and hidden space?

Spacetime curvature is given by the cosmological constant, that produces a De-Sitter spacetime. It is non-zero. But space curvature is nearly zero (how close to zero, compared to the cosmological ...
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0answers
31 views

why galaxies are formed in spiral shape? [duplicate]

Why galaxies are formed in spiral shape. Do nature follow some specific rules creating universe? What could be in the center?
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1answer
30 views

Is Dark Matter accounted for in early universe inflationary models?

In the early universe there must have been an abundance of dark matter unless it formed by some unknown process later on. If it were present, is this significant and factored into our models?
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1answer
270 views

Pressure and density using a general Lagrangian

Given a lagrangian of a form: \begin{equation}\mathcal{L}=f(\phi,\partial_{\mu}\phi\partial^{\mu}\phi)\end{equation} where $f$ is a function, I need to derive pressure and density in a FLRW universe ...
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2answers
63 views

Is it possible that one of the quasars we see is an ancient Milky Way?

As I understand it, even though our current measurements of the Riemann curvature of the universe overlaps with flat spacetime, this doesn't restrict the shape of the universe to being infinite. It's ...
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1answer
197 views

Big Bang…or…Everywhere Stretch?

Recently I watched a minute-physics video that suggested that a better name for the beginning of time would be "Everywhere stretch" because there wasn't a space-time singularity that formed where the ...
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0answers
21 views

Backtracking position [duplicate]

Using a hypothetical photo from a hypothetical telescope, we were able to determine that the farthest galaxy present in the photo is 1 billion light years away. Because we are awesome we were able to ...