The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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35 views

Is the present state of our universe due to a bottom up or top down process, or both? [on hold]

Bottom up is the main stream science view. Most models of the universe are bottom-up, that is, you start from the well-defined initial conditions of the Big Bang and work forward. The other view is ...
2
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0answers
11 views

Power spectrum calculation for simple inflaton potential

I am trying to obtain an expression for the power spectrum $\Delta (k)$ of cosmological perturbations, see for example eqn (148) from the following TASI lectures. Right now, I would like to use the ...
1
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0answers
30 views

Connection between the cosmological constant $\Lambda$ and the cutoff scale $\Lambda$

I'm trying to understand the connection between the $\Lambda$ from cosmology and the $\Lambda$ from QFT. Cosmology: The cosmological constant enters the Einstein equations. In the special case of the ...
0
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0answers
59 views

Big Bang…or…Everywhere Stretch?

Recently I watched a minute-physics video that suggested that a better name for the beginning of time would be "Everywhere stretch" because there wasn't a space-time singularity that formed where the ...
0
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1answer
59 views

Is dark matter moving faster than light? [on hold]

My way of thinking is as follows: Consider a balloon. Let this be blown into a nearly elliptical sphere. Now, the temperature inside the balloon is increased by some means; this leads to the ...
3
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1answer
38 views

What is the limit for the size of a galaxy?

The largest known galaxy is just 100x more massive than Milky Way. I wonder if there is some physical mechanism (some equilibrium) which limits the size of galaxies or if it is just because of limited ...
0
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2answers
48 views

Expanding universe and speed of light [duplicate]

Galaxies are moving away from us proportional to the distance between us and them , but nothing can travel faster than light, so even the farmost galaxies should be travelling away from us along with ...
0
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2answers
56 views

Why do we form cosmological theories based on old data?

Since the light we receive from distant galaxies may be between 7 and 14 billion light years away, the redshift we see indicates that the universe was expanding at that time (7 to 14 billion years ...
4
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3answers
244 views

Do photons lose energy due to gravitational redshift? If so, where does the lost energy go? [duplicate]

In the gravitational redshift, the frequency of photons radiated from some source is reduced. As the energy of a photon is given by $\hbar\omega$, if the frequency is reduced where is the lost energy? ...
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2answers
25 views

Centre of Mass and tangential velocity star and planet

We have two objects - one massive star, and one planet which has a considerably smaller, but non-negligible mass, in a circular orbit about a common centre of mass. Using equation $F$=$GMm$/$r^2$ ...
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0answers
30 views

Cosmological constant theories

Are there any hypotheses on the expansion of the universe, which have a cosmological constant, or some other parameter, that results in a universe with an ever increasing rate of acceleration for the ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Redshift of supernova light curve

I am trying to understand how the width of a supernova light curve depends on the redshift of its component frequencies. Let us make the simple assumption that the light curve is Gaussian. The ...
2
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0answers
29 views

Using the boltzmann equation to find neutrino decoupling temperature

I'm an undergraduate student currently following a particle astrophysics lecture. I was reading some stuff about the neutrinos decoupling before the $e^+ e^-$ annihilations. It's possible to quickly ...
1
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0answers
56 views

Gauge invariant quantities [on hold]

In the context of cosmological perturbation one write the most general perturbed metric as $$ ...
1
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0answers
92 views

Computations for Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations

For quite some time the notion of quantum vacuum fluctuations is bothering me. What exactly is the theoretical origin of this notion? This notion has become quite common in physics and is used to ...
1
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1answer
32 views

Definition of conformal time in de Sitter spacetime

I'm trying to follow the calculations in http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0201158v2 The aim is to rederive the expressions (2.16), (2.17) for the power spectrum in de Sitter spacetime. In order to do so, ...
1
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3answers
104 views

Does big bang have really any justification while we are living within a huge chaos?

All the physicists already know that the n-body problem reveals chaos, so that the planets around the sun should undergo deterministic chaos with a Lyapunov exponent of the order of, say, ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Calculate Total Energy Of Universe [duplicate]

Physicist using $mc^2$ to calculate positive energy and $-MmG/R$ to calculate negative energy to calculate total nergy of the universe but I heard that one of them is relativly invariant and other ...
1
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0answers
8 views

Structure formation: growth of density perturbations in sub-horizon vs super-horizon scales

I've always had difficulty visualizing how sub-horizon scales work versus super-horizon scales. Inflation causes perturbations due to quantum fluctuations. These are under-densities and ...
4
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2answers
123 views

How confident are we that mass is not being lost in the universe?

After reading about the latest super-massive black hole in Nature 518, 512–515 (26 February 2015), I couldn't help but wonder if the accelerating expansion is a result of mass being lost. Would a ...
1
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0answers
46 views

Friedmann Equations Derivation [closed]

I was trying to understand how one goes from the following system of Friedmann equations \begin{cases} \frac{\dot{a}^2}{a^2}+\frac{k}{a^2} = \frac{8\pi\rho(t)}{3} + \frac{\Lambda}{3}\\ ...
2
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2answers
52 views

How does a particular galaxy's apparent recessional velocity CHANGE as the universe expands?

By this I mean will the light from distant galaxies continue to show red shift (i.e. if you look at light from a particular galaxy now and in 10000 years time, the spectra will have been shifted ...
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0answers
36 views

How one can solve Friedman equations of General relativity numerically?

How one can solve Friedman equations numerically subjected to any initial condition?
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1answer
61 views

Why is the universe 3D if the holographic principle says it's encoded in a its surface?

The way I understand the holographic principle is that everything in a 3D space can be thought of as living on the 2D boundary of that space. If that is the case, why does everything in the universe ...
3
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1answer
77 views

Do we need Dark Energy to explain the acceleration of the expansion of the universe?

As far as I know is the discovery that galaxies that are farther away are moving faster from us than galaxies the are closer by. This led to the theory of Dark Energy. The acceleration was speeding ...
0
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2answers
45 views

Can I see stars in my light-cone that you can never see?

The light cone of our galaxy is a lot different to the light-cone of a galaxy 5 bly away. Our Hubble volumes are much different. Everyone is born in/at a different space/time. Can I see stars in my ...
11
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3answers
465 views

Space is expanding so what is time doing? [duplicate]

Space is expanding and as we know space and time are intrinsically linked to be now known as spacetime. What is happening to time during expansion? Is there more time, longer time or is the time part ...
0
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2answers
56 views

In a dust cloud around a star, what causes bodies to form?

I couldn't find an answer to this question. Suppose a dust ring around a new star contains relatively uniform dust particles. What's the process by which they aggregate into larger bodies? I can ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Is the center of the universe in another dimension?

If we live in a four dimensional world and when we try to find the center of the universe (where the big bang occured) we found that there is no apparent center, could that means that the big bang ...
2
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2answers
93 views

Why the CMB has not been dispersed so far?

Imagine you have a box of black body radiation. What happens if you open the box for a long time? It becomes dispersed and no radiation remains in the box. Now, apply this example to the Cosmic ...
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0answers
30 views

How much has the universe expanded in total from the onset of inflation until today?

Starting from the onset of inflation, through inflation, reheating, radiation domination, matter domination, the transition toward dark energy domination all the way to today, how many e-folds of ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Total Mass in Universe [duplicate]

Currently (2015), what is the total mass of the universe? How can we say with mathematical certainty that 69% is dark energy; 25% is dark matter; 5% is atomic matter; and 1% is neutrino, photon, and ...
2
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2answers
76 views

Are physical constants determined by their observation?

In common interpretations of quantum mechanics, it can only be said that objects exist once I observe them - it is not legitimate to ask where an object was before I observed it. Does this point of ...
3
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1answer
73 views

Number $g(T)$ of relativistic degrees of freedom as a function of temperature $T$

Let us consider the total number of relativistic degrees of freedom $g(T)$ for particle species in our universe: $$g(T)=\left(\sum_Bg_B\right)+\frac{7}{8}\left(\sum_Fg_F\right)$$ Where the sums are ...
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2answers
44 views

What would happen after the big crunch?

What is the aftermath of the big crunch?
3
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3answers
211 views

Are electrons held together by vacuum energy?

If one models the electron as a hollow spherical conductor with charge $e$ and radius $a$ then its electrostatic energy is given by: $$E_{em}=\frac{1}{2}\frac{e^2}{4\pi\epsilon_0a}$$ However if one ...
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0answers
54 views

How do we get the power spectrum through the CMB?

How do we get the power spectrum through observing the CMB?
2
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5answers
311 views

Where does General Relativity (GR) fail experimentally? Experimental shortcomings of GR?

When speaking with researchers and professors at my physics department, I sometime catch this undertone in the conversation when speaking about GR: almost as if some are not entirely convinced about ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Olbers' paradox and singularity resolution

As Im sure many fo you there are many attempts at singularity resolution in quantum gravity approaches such in LQC and string theory. In the last few week there was a lot of press for a new approach ...
0
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0answers
42 views

Has the cosmic alignment of Earth and the Solar System been explained (CMB anisotropy)

The Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy is currently aligning Earth and the Solar System with the largest and earliest structure of the universe. Has this been explained yet? Or are the theories ...
1
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0answers
39 views

Does Big Bang Cosmology imply/require infinite space?

The reason I am asking this question is because if all points in space observe recession of galaxies the same as we do from Earth, the universe would have to be infinite (or a closed sphere in 4D or ...
3
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3answers
382 views

How long ago did the Universe end? (Or, how much warning will we get when it does?)

Only partly kidding... Let's suppose that a thousand, or a million, years ago there was an explosion of some gigantic star (or other celestial object) that was strong enough to destroy Earth and Life ...
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58 views

Looking for more information about these two hypotheses

Big Lurch - This was one I read about in a special issue of Scientific American from 2014. It was explained as The Big Lurch is a theoretical scientific model suggested as one of the ...
1
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1answer
28 views

Power Density of Dark Energy (W/m³)

In cosmology empty space has an energy density $\rho_{\Lambda}$ of $$\rho_{\Lambda}=\rho_c \cdot \Omega_{\Lambda}\cdot c^2$$ with $\Omega_{\Lambda}$ beeing the dark energy fraction ($0.683$ ...
2
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0answers
29 views

Dark Energy EoS: which models ruled out, which remain?

Dark energy density is mostly assumed to be a constant, where the equation of state for w=-1 (for radiation it would be w=1/3, for matter w=0 and for curvature -1/3), so in the simplest model the ...
0
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1answer
37 views

What does inflationary theory explain which quantum entanglement cannot?

Introduction This is an honest question... I don't study inflationary theory extensively (This is an understatement) but I am lost as to why it was developed in the first place. Here is why: ...
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1answer
49 views

Are all galaxies we see really our Milky Way? Any possibility?

There is a possibility for our universe to be the surface volume of a (higher-dimensional) hyperspace. So if this possibility is true,then is there also a possibility that the other galaxies we see ...
1
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1answer
57 views

Does the strength of a beam of light determine how much distance it can travel?

If I point a light torch to a cloudless, crystal clear and an absolutely pristine sky, will the light beam exit the planet and travel forever in the vacuum of space? (assuming it doesn't get perturbed ...
0
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1answer
84 views

Why is space (almost) flat? Is it because masses are approximately homogeneously distributed? [duplicate]

The question I have is: Why is space (almost perfectly) flat in our neighbourhood? (I am disregarding the deviations due to the sun and the planets.) Is it correct to say that space is (almost) flat ...
2
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1answer
82 views

Can observations of cosmic super voids teach us anything about time, dark energy, or dark matter?

Can observations of cosmic super voids teach us anything about... Time - If gravity affects time is there a chance we could gain any further information from studying a region with lower than ...