The study of the large-scale structure, history, and future of the universe. Cosmology is about asking and answering questions about the "big picture" - the extent, origin, and fate of everything we know.

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Integrated Boltzmann equation for dark matter

In Dodelson's book, the equation for a scattering process $ a + b \Leftrightarrow c + d $ is given as $$a^{-3} \frac{ d (n_a a^3)}{d t}=-n^{\text{eq}}_a n^{\text{eq}}_b<\sigma v>(\frac{n_a ...
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1answer
49 views

Is a zero-energy universe necessarily also a zero-information universe?

The universe needs to be near zero energy to not crumple in on itself. Under the same logic, does it also need to have near zero information content to prevent the passage of time from burning it to ...
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1answer
48 views

Cosmological Constant on the LHS of Einstein's Field Equation

The cosmological constant seems to be normally described as an energy (repulsive force, Dark Energy) of Space-Time. I was just wondering, if we were to interpret the cosmological constant as being ...
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2answers
45 views

'Doppler redshift' Vs 'Cosmological redshift'

It is not difficult to understand the differences between 'Doppler redshift' and 'Cosmological redshift' conceptually. But how do astronomers distinguish them when doing observations?
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1answer
63 views

Why did the matter in the early universe not stick together due to gravity?

(Feel free to correct any mistaken assumptions I have) The overall question I have is: given that the early universe started as an incredibly dense ball of matter and energy, why didn't that mass ...
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1answer
69 views

How is “little h” measured in cosmology? The dimensionless parameter from the Hubble constant, H_0

Hubble's law has been well-know for close to a century now. It is written as $v = H_0 d$ where the Hubble constant $H_0$ is the constant of proportionality between recession speed $v$ and distance ...
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0answers
26 views

Quark and anti-quark number density [on hold]

Im trying to solve this question but having little luck in doing so. Would appreciate if someone could help me out!
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2answers
54 views

What is the implication of an expanding universe on a small scale? [duplicate]

As a layman I am struggling to understand what effects the fact that the universe itself expands has on distance, density etc. If the universe expands by a factor $k$, does that mean that the ...
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1answer
42 views

Boltzmann equation in cosmology

I have a question about the Boltzmann equation in cosmology. Im trying to understand how this can hold? Where does the logarithmic terms come from? It is explained quite well here ...
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1answer
63 views

Has infinity been observed yet?

Has infinity been observed yet? Or in other words. Does infinity actually exist or is it just a concept? Is it just another way of saying very or extremely?
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2answers
75 views

What's outside of the universe? [on hold]

Assuming you found a way and managed to accelerate above light speed without disintegrating, and went to the edge of the universe, what would happen? Would you instantly explode due to the lack of ...
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2answers
110 views

Do clocks measure conformal time (new argument)?

Assuming the spatially flat FRW metric for simplicity: $$ds^2=c^2dt^2-a(t)^2(dx^2+dy^2+dz^2)$$ where $t$ is cosmological time, $a(t)$ is the scaling factor and $x,y,z$ are co-moving spatial Cartesian ...
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3answers
202 views

What is the exact meaning of homogeneity in cosmology?

I understand that, in general, homogeneity is the physical attribute of being uniform in composition (" of the same form at every point"), but I'm slightly confused when it is used in cosmology as ...
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1answer
51 views

Can't derive FRW Christoffel symbol [closed]

I'm trying to confirm that the $\Gamma^1_{01}$ Christoffel symbol of the FRW metric is $\dot{a}/a$. I have the FRW metric: $$ds^2=-dt^2+a(t)^2\left[\frac{dr^2}{1-kr^2}+r^2(d\theta^2+\sin^2\theta\ ...
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1answer
62 views

What proof do we have that space is expanding? [duplicate]

how can we really say that space is expanding when we cannot see the distant galaxies forming nor are the planets nearby newly formed, nor is anything expanding in size nor are we going far away? ...
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0answers
20 views

DGP brane world model

Can we think of interaction between dark energy and dark matter within the brane in DGP model like in case of GR?
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0answers
44 views

Momentum conservation in FRW spacetime

The spatially flat FRW metric in Cartesian co-ordinates is given by: $$ds^2 = -dt^2 + a^2(t)(dx^2 + dy^2 + dz^2)$$ As I understand it, since the metric does not depend on the spatial co-moving ...
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1answer
50 views

Need resource about super inflation in Loop Quantum Cosmology

In the current model during inflation H remains nearly constant where $ H = \frac{ \dot{a}}{a} $ but the scale factor a grows exponentially and requires a large number of e - folds N where $ N = ...
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2answers
44 views

Explain relationship between angular diameter distance and luminosity distance, Etherington Theorem

I have a question relating to the Etherington Theorem. The luminosity distance is defined by the equation for flux, i.e. $F=\frac{L}{4\pi D_L^2}$ where flux is in units energy per unit time ...
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3answers
52 views

Why is the ratio dark matter / normal matter bigger today than in the past? Is it the dark matter that increased or the normal matter that decreased?

These two pie charts clearly show that the ratio dark matter / normal matter is bigger today than it was in the past. But why? How is it possible? And does it mean that the amount of dark matter ...
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1answer
32 views

Do we really need inflation for horizon problem?

This is a very fundamental doubt. I think i am missing something in inflation. The inflation theory solves the horizon problem by stating all of the universe started from a very small region in ...
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1answer
53 views

Infinite Time Vs. Finite Matter and Energy

Okay, so I'm hoping someone with much more physics knowledge than me can shed some light on an odd discussion that I had with my brother some years ago. I've heard similar ideas, but nothing quite ...
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2answers
336 views

Age of the universe and the singularity at the Big Bang

Using the standard model of cosmology we calculate the Hubble time to obtain an estimate of the age of the universe. This model assumes a beginning of time in the past. But that point is a true ...
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1answer
38 views

Cosmological fluctuations: what is gaussian?

When we are speaking about gaussianity and non-gaussianity in a cosmological context, what is gaussian or non-gaussian in the CMB? What would a non gaussian CMB look like compared to a gaussian one? ...
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1answer
29 views

Cosmology: collisionless vs collisional fluids?

I try to understand the difference between collisionless and collisional fluids in cosmology. My first question is the following. In the context of FLRW cosmology, we suppose that the Universe can ...
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2answers
142 views

Physics in the movie 'INTERSTELLAR'?

have a question , this movie is praised by the scientific accuracy however how the hell does relativity justify that the character can be thrown in black hole and survive ? also if the robot can not ...
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0answers
18 views

DGP brane world model

In the DGP brane world model, accelerating expansion is due to the leakage of gravity into the bulk which gets rid of the dark energy. But why do they introduce the cosmological constant or scalar ...
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2answers
66 views

Olbers Paradox Solution

Olbers’ Paradox says that in an infinite universe every line of sight will end on a star. Surface brightness is independent of distance (moving a star further away makes it smaller and reduces its ...
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1answer
38 views

Particle Horizon and CMB

If particle horizon is the maximum distance we can see presently in the universe, how come we are able to see CMB? CMB is radiation from surface of last scattering happened at t~380k years. Suppose ...
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1answer
73 views

Traveling faster than the universe is expanding?

I was thinking, if the universe is space and time expanding, lets say in 3D (like a sphere). And it is doing that in a constant or not constant speed, there is a debate about that, never mind that but ...
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1answer
51 views

Energy density and pressure in thermal quantum field theory

In QFT, energy density and pressure can be defined from Noether current due to Poincare translation invariance. What if we are considering a system at finite temperature? For a scalar field, we have ...
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1answer
45 views

How can gravitational energy cancel out the rest energy of mass in the universe [duplicate]

I've heard that some physicists think that the net energy of the universe is zero. For this to happen, I would assume that the negative gravitational energy of a body ought to cancel out its rest ...
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0answers
29 views

When was the temperature of the CMB between 0°C? When was it 100°C? [duplicate]

The current temperature of the CMB is something like 3°K. When was the CMB temperature between 0° and 100° Celsius?
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3answers
312 views

What does the accelerating expansion of the universe mean about its end?

So we know that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.When we thought that the expansion of the universe was slowing down,we predicted that it would reach a plateaux and maybe reverse the ...
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0answers
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Validity of Press-Schechter formalism at the end of recombination

I was wondering if Press-Schechter formalism on Spherical collapse is applicable sometime at the end of recombination, i.e. the photons have started to free stream but the free streaming length is ...
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2answers
61 views

We stretch as the universe does [duplicate]

Here's an idea I thought about; more of a thought experiment than anything: The universe is essentially the same as the universe 14 billion years ago, just stretched. However, all matter stretches ...
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1answer
37 views

Why is a negatively curved universe older than a flat one?

And a positively curved universe younger than a flat one? I get that negatively curved means an open universe, and positively curved is a closed one. But how can this affect their age? Is it ...
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1answer
116 views

Age of the universe [closed]

Does the fact that the edge of our observable Universe contains information from the beginning of the Universe give us an ability to determine its age? The edge of our observable universe surely has ...
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0answers
244 views

Dark matter clumping [duplicate]

How can dark matter particles (WIMP's) get ever more densely clumped during the evolution of the universe, as we see for example in the Millennium simulation, if they can't loose kinetic energy by ...
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1answer
63 views

How to design an experiment to see if we are living in a brane or not?

Theories in string theory and cosmology lead to an idea that our universe is a single "membrane" (or brane, as it is commonly called) suspended within a higher dimensional "bulk". See Wikipedia. Is ...
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0answers
33 views

Are there any grounds for thinking that the distribution of matter in the universe is unbounded?

Even though we can make no observations beyond the cosmological horizon, I think people tend to picture a universe that is either homogeneous to infinity, or possibly having spacelike slices that are ...
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0answers
55 views

Are neutrinos weekly interacting particles? [closed]

Occasionally, I read about weekly interacting neutrinos, and although I know this is a typo, I wonder if it happens to be true. Do average neutrinos, as they fly through the universe, really interact ...
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0answers
21 views

Relation between black hole mass and size applied to observable universe [duplicate]

If I apply the relations given in http://xaonon.dyndns.org/hawking/hrcalc.js and http://www0.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/~hall/ag/sw/SpinCalc/SpinCalc.htm to the values for the mass of the observable universe ...
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1answer
66 views

Test to determine if universe is infinite or not

Currently it is not known whether the universe is finite or infinite. Is there any test that can be performed (theoretically) to know whether the universe is infinite or not? I'm still in high ...
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2answers
97 views

Where did energy come from?

So it is my understanding that before the big bang there was a very small point that held all of the matter in the universe. My question is what form did energy of the universe take on when it was in ...
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2answers
282 views

When will physics understand it is the 'dark mass' not the 'dark matter'? [closed]

There is new thinking occurring in physics where 'dark matter' is considered to be incorrect. The new thinking is that mass fills 'empty' space. The mass which fill's 'empty' space is being referred ...
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2answers
65 views

Could the missing antimatter lie outside the observable universe?

While I was reading a similar question asking if other galaxy could be made of antimatter, to which the answer was: if they were, we should detect the radiation from matter interacting with antimatter ...
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1answer
2k views

Why haven't we seen the big bang?

The Andromeda galaxy is 2,538,000 light years away, so if we view Andromeda from a telescope, we see Andromeda how it was 2,538,000 years ago. Now the diameter of the visible universe is 92 billion ...
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1answer
45 views

Cosmological Boltzmann equation [closed]

Consider the Boltzmann equation: $$\frac{d \ln{n^c(T)}}{d \ln{T}} = \frac{\Gamma}{H}(1 - \frac{n^c_{eq}(T)}{n^c(T)})$$ We know that the ratio $\Gamma/H$ can be considered constant, let us put it ...
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1answer
78 views

When they say the universe was the size of a baseball about a billion billion billion billionth of a second

after the big bang. Does that means the observable universe was the size of a baseball, or does it mean the entire universe? I'm guessing it means the observable universe - as we really don't ...