Cosmological inflation refers to an era of expansion that lasted for approximately $10^{-34}$ seconds, during which the universe expanded by a factor of approximately $10^26$ in every direction. This is different from ordinary space expansion and from the acceleration in expansion we experience now ...

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780 views

Can the Big Rip really rip apart an atomic nucleus?

Some scenarios describing the fate of the matter vs dark energy tug of war on the universe involve the acceleration of the universe increasing to the point that it ends up ripping apart even atoms. ...
3
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2answers
195 views

BICEP2 experiments

How was the polarization experimentally measured in the BICEP2 experiments and why did they look specifically at B-modes? Why is it implying the existence of gravitational waves and the need to ...
0
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2answers
142 views

Size of Universe after inflation

I read in some website that during the period of inflation, the expansion of the universe underwent incredibly fast, and its size increased by a factor of $10 ^{50}$, see this link In this field, I ...
9
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1answer
237 views

BICEP2 and e-foldings during inflation

After the BICEP2 results, we now know that $n_s = 0.96$ and $r = 0.2$. From what I understand, this fits extremely well with the basic chaotic inflation model given by $V(\Phi) = \lambda \Phi^4$. We ...
5
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1answer
282 views

What do the BICEP2 results mean for string gas cosmology and the ekpyrotic universe?

The imprint of gravitational waves created shortly after the big bang may offer direct evidence for inflation theory, according to a discovery by the BICEP2 experiment at the South Pole and released ...
3
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1answer
306 views

What is the minisuperspace Lagrangian for gravity plus a scalar field?

In this paper by Sean Carroll and Grant Remmen, in equation (11) they write a Lagrangian of the form $$\boxed{\mathcal{L}=3a\left(k-\dot{a}^2\right)+a^3\left[\frac{1}{2}\dot\phi^2-V(\phi)\right]}$$ ...
3
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1answer
162 views

How big of an area of the sky is the BICEP2 survey?

So here is the BICEP2 picture: How big is that? How much of the sky? Say, compared to this picture of the CMB by Planck:
1
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1answer
48 views

Is Λ-CDM and no inflaton field compatible with the observed value of the scalar spectral index?

From the cosmic microwave background, one can extract the scalar spectral index $n_s$. It is measured to be smaller than 1 by several standard deviations. Wikipedia says that it is a parameter of the ...
2
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0answers
349 views

BICEP2 and string theory

Can anybody elaborate on the implications of the BICEP2 result for string theory? The discussion here What experiment would disprove string theory? suggests that refuting string theory is rather ...
2
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0answers
41 views
1
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1answer
107 views

How many years of expansion occurred during inflation?

During inflation, expansion happens at a very rapid rate. How many years of expansion did it fast forward through? Meaning, if it weren't for inflation, how many years would it take for the ...
5
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2answers
416 views

What is the meaning of the “expansion of space”?

When we say that "the space between galaxies is expanding," what do we really mean? For instance, if I think of space as being a Cartesian grid, then when space expands should I think of it as adding ...
2
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1answer
75 views

Expanding Universe now and $\sim14$Gyr ago

All know that Inflation may solve some of the problems of the Standard Model of Cosmology and today we suppose that the field responsible for that is the inflaton. The properties of the potential ...
2
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2answers
218 views

Is inflation deterministic?

In some theories inflation is supposed to be able to turn quantum fluctuations into macroscopic inhomogeneities. I don't understand how an isolated system such as the universe can undergo such a ...
1
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0answers
109 views

Inflation problem for exponential potential

I'm trying to solve the inflation problem for exponential potential. $$v(\phi) = v_0 \exp(-\alpha \phi)$$ (it's known as barrow or power law inflation) we have two main equations: $$H^2 = 8π G / 3 ...
5
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2answers
723 views

Planck satellite 2013 results impact on cosmological models

I've recently watched a "Through the Wormhole" episode from 2010 named "What Happened Before the Beginning?", where cyclic and ekpyrotic cosmological models are explained. In this episode the creators ...
6
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0answers
215 views

Equation of motion for cyclic model of the universe

I recently started to study about cyclic universe. I came across this article [1]. My question is about the action that used for describing the cyclic model: $$S = \int d^{4}x\sqrt{-g}(\frac{1}{16\pi ...
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1answer
330 views

If the unobservable universe is not “open” and will collapse, would we be able to tell?

Assuming hypothetically that it happens now while we are alive and analyzing our observable universe. If the unobservable universe collapses in a "Big Crunch", will we see its effects in our ...
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0answers
105 views

What's the difference between eternal inflation and chaotic inflation?

Is there a real difference between eternal inflation and "chaotic inflation" theories?
7
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4answers
691 views

de sitter cosmologic limit

It has been said that our universe is going to eventually become a de sitter universe. Expansion will accelerate until their relative speed become higher than the speed of light. So i want to ...
11
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2answers
329 views

How is causal patch complementarity compatible with behavior during inflation?

Causal patch complementarity is the conjecture that in de Sitter space with a positive cosmological constant, the states within the causal patch are sufficient to fully describe the universe with the ...
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0answers
140 views

superhorizon mode and cmb

During the period of inflation, perturbations went out of the Hubble horizon (Hubble radius, R = 1/aH) because the Hubble radius was decreasing during that time. After inflation, the Hubble radius ...
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3answers
500 views

Entropy and Big Bang aren't mutually exclusible? [closed]

There are some principles in entropy im having trouble understanding. If Entropy requires that the energy in the universe must always been constant, shouldnt in theory 'Heat Death' have occurred since ...
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1answer
92 views

Is gravity reversed during inflation?

I am not clear on that. Is gravity repulsive during inflation?
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0answers
48 views

Question on “pocket” universes

I recently heard about the possibility of the creation of a "baby" universe or "pocket" universe from our space time,the theory says that concentrating enough mass into a tiny volume of space (like in ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Why the red-shift of distant galaxies is considered to be the effect of expanding spacetime?

Why it's not explained just by Doppler redshift caused by faster movement of those galaxies billions of years ago when that light was emitted? Would the speeds of the galaxies necessary for Doppler ...
2
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2answers
126 views

Do bubble universes have a centre?

This question is motivated by Big Bang Physics/Cosmology. If eternal inflation is a good description of the universe and we live in a bubble universe then presumably our bubble nucleated at a ...
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1answer
179 views

Big Bang Physics/Cosmology [closed]

Anyone care trying to explain how there is supposedly no center to the universe? Quantum Holography implies a center. Any flowery language of proto atoms or cosmic eggs does as well too. Even water ...
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0answers
63 views

Never ending inflation

There are a lot of different models of inflation in cosmology, with plenty of different features and issues. I read that the problem with some models is that they introduce a never-ending inflation, ...
3
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2answers
216 views

How can bubble universes collide in eternal inflation?

In eternal inflation, how can bubble universes collide if the space between them is exponentially stretching and moving them further and further away?
6
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2answers
331 views

Does the Cosmic Microwave Background obey $\sigma T^4$?

The fact that the CMB has a temperature of 2.7 degrees Kelvin is well publicized, but I have a harder time finding a measure of the wattage per unit area. The Wikipedia article on the CMB is totally ...
6
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0answers
131 views

Time diffeomorphisms breaking in inflation

I am currently working on the topic of inflation. It seems that at the stage of inflation, the universe can be described as a de Sitter space. In such a space, all spacetime diffeomorphisms are ...
4
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1answer
548 views

Additional merits to Wetterich's “Universe without expansion” compared to standard cosmological redshift interpretation?

A recent news item in Nature promotes Wetterich's preprint "A Universe without expansion". All sounds very exciting but hard to judge for non-experts. As I understand from the Nature's article, the ...
5
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3answers
340 views

What does string theory say about the metric expansion?

Specifically, what happens to those small intertwined hidden dimensions? Do those expand too?
3
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3answers
173 views

What would be the effect on gravity if space expanded at > $c$?

If space were to expand at > $c$ (as in inflation) would that mean gravity would no longer have any effect on the curvature of space, since gravity can only propagate at $c$?
4
votes
1answer
117 views

How can contracting dimensions lead to cosmological inflation?

Using the Kasner metric, given by $$ ds^2 = -dt^2 + \sum_{j=1}^D t^{2p_j}(dx^j) $$ it is possible to not only describe the cosmological expansion of some space directions (the ones with positive ...
0
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2answers
102 views

Spread and direction of the cosmic background radiation

Something I can never understand is that where the cosmic background radiation spreads? If I know well, the cosmic background radiation is actually the light of the Big Bang. If it happened exactly ...
6
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1answer
154 views

Causal structure of the inflationary multiverse

In the multiverse as it is described by eternal inflation, it is not clear to me what is its causal structure and in particular if the bubble-universes are causally connected. We start from a ...
2
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0answers
142 views

Cosmic Inflation: Lower Expansion Rate with than without?

When I read the Cosmic Inflation diagram at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Horizonte_inflacionario.svg which I rotated to make it readable: where the Hubbleradius, and therefore also the ...
4
votes
1answer
695 views

Inflation and scalar spectral index

I've been reading that the results from the Planck satellite constrain a number called the "scalar spectral index" to be 0.96 rather than 1 at the 5-sigma level. This is supposed to be big news, but ...
0
votes
3answers
200 views

Acceleration in the rate of expanansion of the universe due to weakening gravity?

Could the acceleration in the rate of expansion of the universe be due to the weakening of gravitational forces, as the distance between objects continues to increase?
6
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0answers
120 views

How can dynamics be reversible if inflation-style baby universe spawning is allowed?

I just finished readying Sean Carroll's book, "From Eternity to Here", and have a question about reversibility and inflation: Assume inflation allows random quantum fluctuations to produce high ...
1
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1answer
262 views

Inflation and string theory in general relativity

How can we relate inflation and string theory? We study some inflationary cosmological model or some string cosmological model under some specific assumptions or conditions. Is their any relation or ...
1
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2answers
356 views

What is the speed of acceleration of the inflation of the universe?

Is the inflation speed of the universe accelerating or is it a constant speed of expansion proportional to distance between objects.
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Tensor perturbation inflation

During inflation the metric is de-Sitter so $dt^2-d\underline{X}^2 $. I know that the eqn.motion governing GW's from inflation (tensor perturbations) is $$2H\dot{h}+\ddot{h}-\nabla^{2}_{i}h~=~0,$$ ...
3
votes
1answer
241 views

Observable (in principle) signal of a bubble collision in eternal inflation

Assuming a scenario of eternal inflation with a lot of "bubble universes" expanding, Lenny Susskind explains here that a potential signal of a collision of our universe with another bubble could be a ...
8
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0answers
57 views

Hybrid Inflation and Supergravity

Is it necessary to add a constant term in the superpotential of hybrid inflation within supergravity in order to cancel SUSY vacuum energy at the end of inflation?
2
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0answers
52 views

Is Inflation modelled by a field?

If Inflation is modelled by a field - is this a classical field or a quantum field? If classical are there good reasons not to quantise it? What are the implications of such a quantisation?
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Is the redshift of ancient stars less than constant linear expansion predicts?

When accelerated expansion of universe was discovered, the astronomers used redshift of ancient stars. Say if star is 10 billion years in the past, then it should be moving faster than star from 5 ...
1
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0answers
62 views

The definition of $f_{NL}$ and transfer function

To me there seems to be quite a few different definitions of $f_{NL}$ in cosmology and I would like to know if or how they are equivalent. Let me cite at least 3 such, One can see the equation 6.71 ...