The statement that a property of a system does not change if the system is isolated.

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57 views

If mass rotates at varying speed, will the whole system be pulled in the direction of the strongest centrifugal force? [on hold]

And, what are the implications in terms of Newtonian law of action and reaction, as well as conservation of momentum and conservation of energy? Practical example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-...
4
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2answers
150 views

Does the conservation of the Wronskian follow from Noether's principle?

Noether's principle is the paradigm that symmetries of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian systems correspond to conservation laws of various kinds. Consider a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator $$\tag{*} \...
1
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0answers
32 views

How much velocity can a canister of fuel give a spaceship? [on hold]

We could approximate a basic solution If we know the mass of the fuel $m$, the mass of the ship $M$ and the amount of energy left in the fuel $E$. So the energy density of the fuel is, $\frac{E}{m} = ...
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1answer
198 views

Hidden momentum

I'm trying to learn about hidden momentum. After reading what I could find with a google search, I understand that it is equal to the momentum carried by radiation, calculated with the Poynting vector....
0
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0answers
38 views

Period of a Neutron star? [closed]

I need help understanding this concept of rotational motion. I have a problem that uses a star in which the star has a radius initially of 7*(10^7) km and it is treated as a solid sphere(which means ...
2
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1answer
92 views

Angular momentum in an accretion disk

I need to plot the time evolution of the total angular momentum in an accretion disc. This confuses me because I thought this should be constant, since angular momentum has to be conserved? I'm given ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Collisions; Linear Momentum [closed]

Let's say we got a rough surface with friction and there are 2 blocks, the block of the left has initial velocity and will collide with the block of the right, which is in rest. Consider an elastic ...
0
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0answers
47 views

Trouble following an argument about a rocket problem

This is from pages 32-33 of Physics for Mathematicians. A rocket + fuel system of mass $m(t)$ is moving along at velocity $v(t)$, with its fuel being ejected at the velocity (relative to the rocket) $...
18
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1answer
1k views

Gauge redundancies and global symmetries [closed]

It is often said that local (gauge) transformation is only redundancy of description of spin one massless particles, to make the number degrees of freedom from three to two. It is often said that ...
0
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1answer
402 views

first law of thermodynamics and conservation of energy

The first law of thermodynamics is referred to as a reformulation of the law of conservation of energy. I am not sure to fully understand this relationship. My way of picturing it is the following. ...
2
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2answers
47 views

Does a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave transfer angular momentum from the transmitter to a receiving antennae?

This question is about the rotation of macroscopic objects and looks at the magnetic vector of an electromagnetic wave. As basis for comparison, we consider an induction motor. The stator induces a ...
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5answers
148 views

If “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”, why does a gun not injure the shooter's hand?

If "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction", why does a gun not injure the shooter's hand? Would not the "equal and opposite reaction" of firing a bullet be the kickback the shooter ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Homogenity and Isotropicity of space

In school it is given that law of conservation of momentum is a result of homogeneity of space and law of conservation of angular momentum is a result of isotropicity of space but what is isotropicity ...
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0answers
38 views

Current Conservation [closed]

Why is current conservation important? Specifically, in QFT and String Theory lecture notes and textbooks it's always stated that current conservation is important because it helps maintain quantum ...
37
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1answer
2k views

Why was the first discovered neutrino an anti-neutrino?

In the search for neutrinos, Cowan and Reines discovered the electron anti-neutrino and named it as such. Why is the particle they discovered the anti-variety? The reason we call electrons 'electrons'...
0
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1answer
61 views

If matter cannot be destroyed, does that mean that these particles are created somewhere else after breakdown but in the particles original shape?

In the electron collider, after the breakdown into smaller particles, these particles last for a fraction of a second, and then they disappear. My question is: If matter cannot be destroyed, does ...
0
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1answer
123 views

Is conservation of momentum and energy valid for non-inertial frames?

Conservation laws of momentum and energy are said to be the most basic principles of physics. Are they also valid for non-inertial frames, and in what way?
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2answers
82 views

If I throw or kick a ball, how much will the Earth move in the opposite direction?

I understand that for momentum to be conserved, if I throw a tennis ball (or kick a football) the Earth must move in the opposite direction to the ball. Obviously this is an infinitesimally small ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Where do the intrinsic parities of particles come from?

It is known that some particles have negative intrinsic parity - for example pion $\pi$. I was wondering if this parity can be understood. I read somewhere that parity of quarks is defined to be ...
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0answers
47 views

Integrals of motion for a free particle

I'm struggling to understand the argument on p. 13 in Landau and Lifshitz that for a system with $N$ degrees of freedom there must be $2N-1$ integrals of motion. In particular, I can't understand ...
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1answer
130 views

Mathematical proof of an electron can't absorb a photon [duplicate]

How can we mathematically prove that a free electron can't absorb a photon totally?
2
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1answer
165 views

The norm of the vector sum of two 4-momentum vectors before and after pair production

Two photons traveling along the x-axis (in a lab frame of reference) of different frequencies are about to collide. Their 4-momentum vectors are (h$\nu_1$/c , h$\nu_1$/c , 0, 0) and (h$\nu_2$/c , -h$\...
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2answers
50 views

Can a system's internal forces change the system's motion?

Let say the motor makes the two rigid body rotate as a same velocity. (they rotate the opposite direction) then the Net force of the motor is 2Fsin(Theta). The acceleration of the motor is 2Fsin(theta)...
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1answer
52 views

Gravity and angular momentum

When a mass moves towards a bigger mass at a constant velocity, they will be attracted to each other such that the smaller mass will revolve around the bigger mass with the same speed as before. ...
0
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3answers
55 views

Can internal forces bring any change in momentum of the system?

Imagine a rectangular box placed at the tip of an iceberg; the box contains a man who can freely walk/jump/rotate inside the box. The man walks up to one of the corners of the box and starts jumping. ...
12
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3answers
2k views

What are some phenomena that can not be described without the help of Newton's third law of motion? [closed]

What are some phenomena that can not be described without the help of Newton's third law of motion? All the phenomena I can think of can be explained with the help of Newton's first law or second law. ...
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1answer
48 views

Energy conservation and time translations

The time translation is given by a finite unitary transformation $$\hat{U_{\tau}}(\hat{H}) = e^{\big(\frac{i}{\hbar}\tau \bar{H}\big)}.$$ Where $$\hat{U_{\tau}}(\hat{H})|\psi(t) \rangle = |\psi(t-\tau)...
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2answers
99 views

Conservation of linear momentum (classical mechanics and special relativity)

How did Newton deduce the law of conservation of linear momentum? Can it be derived only by Newton's laws, or does it follow from practical experiments? If the law of conservation of linear momentum ...
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2answers
124 views

When is stress-energy tensor defined as variation of action with respect to metric conserved?

In General Relativity Einstein's equation implies that stress-energy tensor on its RHS is conserved (has vanishing divergence), due to the Bianchi identity. Considering variational principles leading ...
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1answer
46 views

Lorentz transformation and symmetries of the Lagrangian [duplicate]

Since the Lagrangian of our quantum field theories is covariant under Lorentz transformations I'm asking myself if there is any link to some symmetries (like that we get from gauge transformations ...
1
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0answers
57 views

Meaning of a Dirac delta speed in 1d shallow-water equations

A 1d thin layer of a fluid of constant density in hydrostatic balance can be modeled by shallow-water equations: $$\begin{align*}\partial_tu+\partial_x\left(v+\frac{u^2}{2}\right)&=0,\\ \...
1
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2answers
83 views

Prove energy conservation using Noether's theorem

I wonder how you prove that energy is conserved under a time translation using Noether's theorem. I've tried myself but without success. What I've come up with so far is that I start by inducing the ...
1
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2answers
285 views

Intro Mechanics: Finding ball speeds after collision

So I'm reading about conservation of energy, momentum, balls colliding etc. and unsurprisingly there are hundreds of questions in my textbook where essentially they give me some of the variables (m1, ...
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1answer
122 views

Are all conservative forces a central force?

If a force is a central force and can be written as $\vec{F}(\vec{r})=f{(r)}\hat{r}$ , then it is a conservative force. But is the converse true? I mean, are all conservative forces a central force? ...
2
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2answers
94 views

Newton's Cradle: why does it stay symmetric? [duplicate]

How is it that always the same number of balls leave at the other end in Newton's cradle. I understand that the momentum needs to be conserved, but as momentum is defined as p=m*v couldn't you have a ...
1
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1answer
143 views

Reaction in Particle Physics

I'm currently checking some reactions if they are allowed. One of them is $$\nu_\mu p\to\mu^-\Delta^{++}$$ Since this is a weak interaction I've checked the Baryon and Lepton number, Spin and the ...
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2answers
112 views

Do conservation laws contradict quantum mechanics? [closed]

Take for example the double-slit experiment interpreted in the Copenhagen sense. The particle leaves as an object with mass, yet passes through the slits as a massless wave, only to collapse again as ...
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0answers
171 views

Can we prove Conservation of Angular Momentum without assuming internal forces are central?

The only proof I've seen of Conservation of Angular Momentum assumes that the internal forces of the system act along the line joining particles i and j (i.e. - all internal forces are central.) Can ...
35
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4answers
17k views

Why can't energy be created or destroyed?

My physics instructor told the class, when lecturing about energy, that it can't be created or destroyed. Why is that? Is there a theory or scientific evidence that proves his statement true or ...
1
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2answers
60 views

Where does $W$ boson mass come from in neutron decay?

Here's a diagram of neutron decay. Up and down quarks have rest masses of 2-4 MeV. The $W$ boson has a rest mass of 80 GeV. Where has this extra mass come from?
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3answers
1k views

What are the general solutions to a hard sphere collision? [duplicate]

Surely someone has found the solutions to the hard sphere collisions (in $n$ dimensions) of two bodies of mass $m_1$ and $m_2$, respectively--that is the resultant velocities (or momenta) of the two ...
1
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1answer
39 views

When does $ S\cdot v=\mathrm{cost}$ hold?

In fluids dynamics what are the limitations for the use of the volume flow rate conservation law? $$ S\cdot v=\mathrm{cost}$$ Does it still hold when there are external forces acting on the system, e....
1
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1answer
68 views

Under what condition is angular momentum conserved in both classical and quantum physics?

Classically, angular momentum is only conserved in a central potential by considering the torque (correct me if I am wrong). In quantum mechanics, it is also true, isn't it? If this is the case, ...
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1answer
48 views

Baryon / lepton number violation equivalence in Sakharov conditions

In the Sakharov conditions for matter-antimatter asymmetry the requirement for the baryon number violation is often interchanged with lepton number violation. In the context of the Sakharov conditions,...
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1answer
58 views

With the descent of Newtonian mechanics is Newton's third law still valid?

Or more specifically, with the standard model, quantum theory and other advances in physics, all those experiments in CERN and other accelerators, was there any occurrence where this law was violated? ...
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2answers
7k views

Why can't we destroy energy?

From a wikipedia article: In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can be neither ...
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0answers
47 views

Showing classical spin tensor is time independent for free particle

Reading through Weinberg's gravitation book, the following definition is given for the spin tensor (Pauli-Lubanski psuedovector): $$ S_\alpha = \frac{1}{2}\epsilon_{\alpha\beta\gamma\delta} J^{\beta\...
1
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1answer
41 views

Intuitive picture for Mandelstam $t$

In tree-level electron-positron scattering one has two possible channels corresponding to Mandelstam variables $s$ and $t$. The $s$-channel ist fine, there $\sqrt s$ is just the center of mass energy ...
1
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1answer
68 views

Does Newton's third law remain totally unchanged even in Einstein's theory?

Why Newton's third law remain unchanged still now in relativity theory (as for example that is why we feel weight due to equal but opposite reaction of the Earth's surface)?
3
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2answers
75 views

Throwing masses to gain velocity. A question of efficiency

I was thinking the other day of a system in which you eject mass. And then I wonder whether it was more efficient to throw a big mass or many little. Let me put it in other terms. Suppose you are ...