The statement that a property of a system does not change if the system is isolated.

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Movement of a box containig a particle [on hold]

A small thought experiment: Imagine a rectangular box in space, containing particle, all resting at $t=0$ from your point of view. At some point in time $t>0$ the particle starts to move with ...
0
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0answers
11 views

How do rockets fly? [duplicate]

Is it that when a rocket loses its mass due to the escaping gases that results in its acceleration due to the same force acting upwards? If so, how is Newton's Third Law associated with it?
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1answer
50 views

Conservation of Energy - Conceptual [on hold]

Two springs are attached by a piece of cloth. Both masses of the springs and of the cloth are negligible. The sizes of the cloth also are negligible. The initial tension in the springs are $|\vec{T}| =...
0
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1answer
53 views

Conservation of enegry in case of Exploding Projectile [on hold]

Consider the following problem : A projectile of mass M explodes, while in flight, into three fragments. One fragment of mass $m_1 =\frac12 M$ travels in the original direction of the projectile. ...
0
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1answer
44 views

In the following problem, where did $v_{cm}$ come from? [on hold]

In the following problem, where did come from? I don't recall any formula that this equation could be derived from...?
0
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2answers
427 views

first law of thermodynamics and conservation of energy

The first law of thermodynamics is referred to as a reformulation of the law of conservation of energy. I am not sure to fully understand this relationship. My way of picturing it is the following. ...
3
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0answers
47 views

Number of Independent postulates in Electrodynamics

We know that there are two ways to get charge conservation in electrodynamics by using the following action: $$S[A]~=~\int\! d^4x {\cal L},$$ $$ {\cal L} ~=~{\cal L}_{\rm Maxwell} + {\cal L}_{\rm ...
-3
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1answer
43 views

If mass and energy are same what will be the equivalent of a homogeneous ball in terms of energy? [closed]

We can observe an object with mass as it has a well defined boundary but it is not the same with energy. What may happen to the information or data that exists with an object and is needed to ...
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0answers
45 views

Why isn't mass conservation counted among the laws of thermodynamics? [on hold]

Is this purely a historical artifact, a consequence of how the original formulators of the three laws were thinking and experimenting at the time? Or is there a compelling scientific/logical reason ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Does a counterweight eliminate recoil/counter-torque?

A long, long time ago, I remember reading some scifi book that involved catapults whose throwing arm had a counterweight at the other end, such that the arm was balanced. The counterweight was not ...
-1
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2answers
37 views

Total Linear Momentum Conserved for Earth-Sun System? [closed]

According to 'Introductory Astronomy and Astrophysics' by Smith and Jacobs the total linear momentum of an isolated system is constant which they choose as zero, so they get (mv)1 = (mv)2. When I ...
17
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5answers
3k views

What is the conserved quantity of a scale-invariant universe?

Consider that we have a system described by a wavefunction $\psi(x)$. We then make an exact copy of the system, and anything associated with it, (including the inner cogs and gears of the elementary ...
1
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3answers
43 views

Where did 2mv come from in the solution to the question below?

I know that this is an inelastic collission, which is why the two objects have the same final velocity. However, I don't understand why they equated the V1(M+m) to 2mv. Where did they get 2mv from?
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2answers
47 views

Why is momentum conserved in a control volumen?

I know momentum is conserved in an isolated system wherein there in not mass nor energy flow and the net resultant external forces are equaly to zero. My doubt is when I'm studying a (fixed) constrol ...
5
votes
1answer
67 views

Electric charge conservation in a superconductor

In a superconductor, $U(1)$ gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken. But $U(1)$ gauge symmetry is responsible for conservation of electric charge. Then it appears to me that the electric charge ...
0
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1answer
25 views

If a generalized coordinate is not cyclic, can we conclude that the corresponding generalized momentum is not conserved?

This is basically the reverse situation to the normal case: We find a cyclic coordinate in the lagrangian function describing the system and can conclude that the corresponding generalized momentum ...
10
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0answers
762 views

Is the amount of the soil reduced when plants grow? [migrated]

According to the principle of mass conservation I think the amount of the soil should be reduced when plants grow. But this reduction is not observable so much. For example, some trees (big trees) ...
0
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1answer
25 views

Rocket Propulsion Equation: Meaning of Net Force

Upon deriving the rocket equation, my textbook (Giancoli) states that the meaning of the net force on the final equation is the net force on M. Note that $M$ and $dM$ are used as the rocket (without ...
0
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2answers
108 views

Conservation of linear momentum (classical mechanics and special relativity)

How did Newton deduce the law of conservation of linear momentum? Can it be derived only by Newton's laws, or does it follow from practical experiments? If the law of conservation of linear momentum ...
0
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1answer
31 views

law of conservation of linear momentum (Nuclear Engine)

Suppose there is a isolated system in which there is only one stationary rocket. As the rocket is in stationary position the initial momentum will be 0, now nuclear engine is started, as a result ...
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2answers
58 views

What is the difference between a physical constant, a scalar, and a conserved quantity

I don't really know how to properly articulate this question. This question popped into my mind when pondering why the fact that a physical constant like the speed of light doesn't have an associated ...
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3answers
2k views

Why is there conservation of kinetic energy in elastic collision and not in inelastic collision?

Why is there conservation of kinetic energy in elastic collision and not in inelastic collision? What would be the difference that lead to conservation of kinetic energy in elastic collision and not ...
5
votes
1answer
472 views

Is there any potential associated with magnetism

Can anybody please tell me if magnetism is a conservative force or if there is a field associated with it? How to reason? One thing I know is that the work done by a magnetic force is equal to $0$.
6
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1answer
117 views

Why doesn't the relativistic formula for momentum appear consistent with collisions?

The relativistic formula for momentum is $$p = \frac{mv}{\sqrt{1 - \dfrac{v^2}{c^2}}} \,.$$ In the following example, I apply the formula in the most basic way possible to the addition of velocities. ...
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0answers
39 views

Gradient identity for streamlines

I am studying a 2D flow and I have a resource telling me that the following holds true for streamlines in general. Let $f$ be the density of the flow, and suppose there exists a unique streamline ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Two carts on a frictionless rail collide [closed]

There're 2 carts on a frictionless rail. Their masses are $4m$ and $2m$. (The carts are on the rail in this order). The first cart has a velocity of $v_1$. The first cart hits the second. Knowing that ...
4
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2answers
159 views

Does the conservation of the Wronskian follow from Noether's principle?

Noether's principle is the paradigm that symmetries of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian systems correspond to conservation laws of various kinds. Consider a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator $$\tag{*} \...
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0answers
33 views

How much velocity can a canister of fuel give a spaceship? [closed]

We could approximate a basic solution If we know the mass of the fuel $m$, the mass of the ship $M$ and the amount of energy left in the fuel $E$. So the energy density of the fuel is, $\frac{E}{m} = ...
5
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1answer
201 views

Hidden momentum

I'm trying to learn about hidden momentum. After reading what I could find with a google search, I understand that it is equal to the momentum carried by radiation, calculated with the Poynting vector....
3
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1answer
94 views

Angular momentum in an accretion disk

I need to plot the time evolution of the total angular momentum in an accretion disc. This confuses me because I thought this should be constant, since angular momentum has to be conserved? I'm given ...
0
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1answer
47 views

Collisions; Linear Momentum [closed]

Let's say we got a rough surface with friction and there are 2 blocks, the block of the left has initial velocity and will collide with the block of the right, which is in rest. Consider an elastic ...
0
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0answers
58 views

Trouble following an argument about a rocket problem

This is from pages 32-33 of Physics for Mathematicians. A rocket + fuel system of mass $m(t)$ is moving along at velocity $v(t)$, with its fuel being ejected at the velocity (relative to the rocket) $...
18
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1answer
1k views

Gauge redundancies and global symmetries [closed]

It is often said that local (gauge) transformation is only redundancy of description of spin one massless particles, to make the number degrees of freedom from three to two. It is often said that ...
2
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2answers
54 views

Does a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave transfer angular momentum from the transmitter to a receiving antennae?

This question is about the rotation of macroscopic objects and looks at the magnetic vector of an electromagnetic wave. As basis for comparison, we consider an induction motor. The stator induces a ...
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5answers
151 views

If “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”, why does a gun not injure the shooter's hand?

If "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction", why does a gun not injure the shooter's hand? Would not the "equal and opposite reaction" of firing a bullet be the kickback the shooter ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Homogenity and Isotropicity of space

In school it is given that law of conservation of momentum is a result of homogeneity of space and law of conservation of angular momentum is a result of isotropicity of space but what is isotropicity ...
38
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1answer
2k views

Why was the first discovered neutrino an anti-neutrino?

In the search for neutrinos, Cowan and Reines discovered the electron anti-neutrino and named it as such. Why is the particle they discovered the anti-variety? The reason we call electrons 'electrons'...
0
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1answer
62 views

If matter cannot be destroyed, does that mean that these particles are created somewhere else after breakdown but in the particles original shape?

In the electron collider, after the breakdown into smaller particles, these particles last for a fraction of a second, and then they disappear. My question is: If matter cannot be destroyed, does ...
0
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1answer
131 views

Is conservation of momentum and energy valid for non-inertial frames?

Conservation laws of momentum and energy are said to be the most basic principles of physics. Are they also valid for non-inertial frames, and in what way?
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2answers
84 views

If I throw or kick a ball, how much will the Earth move in the opposite direction?

I understand that for momentum to be conserved, if I throw a tennis ball (or kick a football) the Earth must move in the opposite direction to the ball. Obviously this is an infinitesimally small ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Where do the intrinsic parities of particles come from?

It is known that some particles have negative intrinsic parity - for example pion $\pi$. I was wondering if this parity can be understood. I read somewhere that parity of quarks is defined to be ...
3
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0answers
50 views

Integrals of motion for a free particle

I'm struggling to understand the argument on p. 13 in Landau and Lifshitz that for a system with $N$ degrees of freedom there must be $2N-1$ integrals of motion. In particular, I can't understand ...
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1answer
134 views

Mathematical proof of an electron can't absorb a photon [duplicate]

How can we mathematically prove that a free electron can't absorb a photon totally?
2
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1answer
167 views

The norm of the vector sum of two 4-momentum vectors before and after pair production

Two photons traveling along the x-axis (in a lab frame of reference) of different frequencies are about to collide. Their 4-momentum vectors are (h$\nu_1$/c , h$\nu_1$/c , 0, 0) and (h$\nu_2$/c , -h$\...
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2answers
53 views

Can a system's internal forces change the system's motion?

Let say the motor makes the two rigid body rotate as a same velocity. (they rotate the opposite direction) then the Net force of the motor is 2Fsin(Theta). The acceleration of the motor is 2Fsin(theta)...
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1answer
53 views

Gravity and angular momentum

When a mass moves towards a bigger mass at a constant velocity, they will be attracted to each other such that the smaller mass will revolve around the bigger mass with the same speed as before. ...
0
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3answers
58 views

Can internal forces bring any change in momentum of the system?

Imagine a rectangular box placed at the tip of an iceberg; the box contains a man who can freely walk/jump/rotate inside the box. The man walks up to one of the corners of the box and starts jumping. ...
12
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3answers
2k views

What are some phenomena that can not be described without the help of Newton's third law of motion? [closed]

What are some phenomena that can not be described without the help of Newton's third law of motion? All the phenomena I can think of can be explained with the help of Newton's first law or second law. ...
1
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1answer
49 views

Energy conservation and time translations

The time translation is given by a finite unitary transformation $$\hat{U_{\tau}}(\hat{H}) = e^{\big(\frac{i}{\hbar}\tau \bar{H}\big)}.$$ Where $$\hat{U_{\tau}}(\hat{H})|\psi(t) \rangle = |\psi(t-\tau)...
7
votes
2answers
133 views

When is stress-energy tensor defined as variation of action with respect to metric conserved?

In General Relativity Einstein's equation implies that stress-energy tensor on its RHS is conserved (has vanishing divergence), due to the Bianchi identity. Considering variational principles leading ...