The statement that a property of a system does not change if the system is isolated.

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17
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6answers
777 views

Elastic collision of point particle and rod

A 1 meter long rod on the ice with mass $m_2=1$ kg is perpendicularly hit on one end by a point particle with mass $m_1=0.1$ kg. The collision is elastic and the point particle is bounced back in ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Antimatter universe and Noether's theorem

I am studying Feynman's "symmetry in physical laws", where he talks about conservation laws for corresponding symmetries. (I know this is Noether's theorem, I am studying this from David Tong's ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Interpretation of Mass Continuity Equation in MHD

I'm writing up my final-year dissertation and I'm required to give, as part of the introduction, an analysis of all the equations (and their terms) of which I use. Embarrassingly, whilst of course ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

Why is $\int_{s} \mathbf{h}\cdot \mathbf{n} da = - \dfrac{dQ}{dt}$ & not $\int_{s} \mathbf{h} \cdot\mathbf{n} da = - \dfrac{dQ}{dt} .{dt}$?

I was reading the Lectures of Feynman about surface integral where a situation in which heat is conserved has been dealt. Let there be $Q$ heat energy present inside a body. Now, if there is net heat ...
0
votes
2answers
18 views

Conservation of Sea water Vs Conservation of Matter

I have been listening to people, since my childhood, saying that amount of water in Sea always remains constant even if we draw out much from it, it never changes. They used to emphasize by saying ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Finding final velocity in inelastic collision

Information: In a shipping company distribution center, an open cart of mass 49.0-kg is rolling to the left at a speed of 5.40-m/s (see the figure). You can ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Time evolution of generalized angular momentum operator

We define this operator : $$M^{\mu\nu} = \int d^3x~(x^{\mu}T^{0\nu} - x^{\nu}T^{0\mu})$$ where $T_{\mu\nu}$ is the energy momentum tensor (see e.g. Energy momentum tensor from Noether's theorem) ...
6
votes
1answer
161 views

How does the divergence theorem justify the integral form of the continuity equation?

I vaguely understand the continuity equation (at least its integral form), but I don't really understand the differential form of the continuity equation. I'm having trouble understanding how to ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Continuity equation in fluid mechanics

The continuity equation in fluid mechanics states that $$ \frac{\partial\rho}{\partial t} + \nabla\cdot(ρ\mathbf u)=0 $$ Can you explain to me what is the physical meaning of each term of the ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

What is the definition of parity conservation?

I searched quite hard, and am still confused what is the exact definition of parity conservation? For example, we have quantum system with initial state $\Phi_i$, and after decaying it comes to final ...
2
votes
1answer
139 views

Why isn't jumping against a wall an elastic collision?

According to this calculator http://www.abecedarical.com/javascript/script_collision1d.html when low mass object hits high mass object it is reflected gaining opposite velocity almost the same as ...
1
vote
2answers
111 views

How to use the first law of thermodynamics for simple mechanical systems?

I'm confused about what exactly is $Q$ and $U$ and their signs. Consider a block initially having some kinetic energy which we stop and we want to find by how much amount its temperature increases. ...
0
votes
3answers
95 views

Two balls travelling at different speeds collide in two referentials

In a referential R1, one ball B1 travels at 100 m/s and hits and another identitcal ball B2 that travels at 50 m/s in the same direction. Assuming the material in which the balls are made is such that ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Neutron X collides with a stationary neutron Y when travelling directly towards it with velocity v. Show X will stop and Y will move off with v [on hold]

By writing equations showing conservation of kinetic energy and conservation of momentum, show that an elastic collision between neutron X travelling with velocity v directly towards neutron Y, which ...
1
vote
2answers
99 views

Energy conservation in electrodynamic system?

Consider two charged particles initially at rest in the configuration below. Let us assume the following: Starting at time $t=0$, we apply a constant force $f$ to the the bottom particle so that ...
0
votes
1answer
141 views

Conservation of angular momentum in a free rod

When a collision is elastic and no external torque acts on a system, angular momentum is conserved I found this example and checked the results: A ball (m = 1 Kg , v = p =+22 m/s, Lm = +11, Ke = 242 ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Proving the conservation of 4-momentum for a particle collision $A+B\to C+D$

Let me say that particle A hits particle B and two particles come out - C and D; In system S I can write: $$p_A^μ+p_B^μ=p_C^μ+p_D^μ;\tag{1}$$ here $p_N^μ$ is the 4-momentum. Using the Lorentz ...
5
votes
3answers
233 views

The momentum of a swinging sword

Suppose you are faced with a zombie, and the only way to kill it and save yourself is to chop its head off with your sword. However, you are very weak from illness, and can only afford to strike once. ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Determine path of point mass using the Hamilton's principle

I am very new in this field but I try to solve a problem by using the Hamilton's principle and afterwards I want to compare the solution by solving the same problem using conservation laws. What I ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Calculation of velocity via kinetic energy and momentum yielding different answer

I am attacking the given problem (as a preface I'm not asking to be spoon fed any answers, just looking for clarity from people much smarter than myself) A 15.0kg block is attached to a very light ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

During perfectly elastic collision of two objects $A$ and $B$, how much is the initial speed of object $A$ affecting the force applied to $A$ itself?

I got stuck in what seemed to be an easy problem. If two bodies $A$ and $B$ collide perfectly elastically and head-on what is the equation that gives us the forces applied to $A$ and $B$, given a ...
3
votes
2answers
184 views

Confused about elasticity and collisions

I was solving the following problem and the explanation to it confused me. There are two objects with mass $m$ and $M$, respectively. The object with mass $m$ has a velocity of $\sqrt{2gl}$ and ...
1
vote
2answers
60 views

Why is momentum conserved in inelastic collisions? How is it related to momentum-impulse theory?

First of all I want to mention, that I've found many questions around this site and in other websites dealing with my question; however, I don't think they answer my question fully. So I am here to ...
8
votes
3answers
208 views

What is the symmetry associated with the local particle number conservation law for fluid?

According to Noether's theorem, every continuous symmetry (of the action) yields a conservation law. In fluid, there is a local particle number conservation law, which is ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Angular momentum in planetary disk formation

This question is actually more linked to astronomy and astrophysics than to pure physics. I tried posting it on the astronomy page, however it got no answers, so I though this page might help. ...
3
votes
5answers
224 views

How is Angular Momentum Conserved when Mass is Released?

I am not a physicist (math/comp-sci) but I understand that Angular Momentum is supposed to be conserved. I find this confusing because there seems to be many simple, common cases where a restrained, ...
1
vote
2answers
223 views

Case of the mysterious bullets (taken from Mad About Physics)

"Two ideal bullets, identical in shape, size and mass, strike the same target with the same speed just before the collision. Force meters at the target register two times the force value for bullet A ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

How to define conserved charges in Euclidean field theory?

In a field theory with signature (1,d), conserved charges are obtained by integrating the time component of a conserved current over a spatial region. What are the corresponding equations and ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

If there are 4 dimensions, shouldn't objects appear and disappear in 3D space?

If there are 4 (or more) physical dimensions, and physical objects can move through the 4th dimension in paths perpendicular to our 3 dimensions, the physical objects must pass through our ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Averaged energies in particle collisions

Let's have (in CM frame) process $x + y \to x + y + z$, where $x, y, z$ correspond to (in general) different particles with non-zero masses. The total energy of process is $E$. How to calculate ...
3
votes
1answer
344 views

Hamiltonian Noether's theorem in classical mechanics

How does one think about, and apply, Noether's theorem in the classical mechanical Hamiltonian formalism? From the Lagrangian perspective, Noether's theorem (in 1-D) states that the quantity ...
-1
votes
2answers
29 views

How did the planets (in the Solar System) start to revolve around the sun if they were attracted towards the Sun via the gravitational force? [duplicate]

The planets in the Solar System revolve around the Sun in almost circular paths called orbits. The Sun pulls the planets with the gravitational force,but the planets do not get drawn to the Sun but ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Separability of Hamilton Jacobi Equation

When we talk about integrability of classical systems in terms of Hamiltonian or Lagrangian mechanics, it's all to do with counting independent conserved quantities. Then when we move to the ...
8
votes
2answers
332 views

Does Noether's theorem also give rise to quantities conserved over space?

Noether's theorem gives rise to quantities that are conserved over time. But does it also give rise to quantities that are conserved over space?
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Equations for a collision between two particles

Say I have two particles on a 2D plane, they have a x and y coordinate, a x and y velocity, a mass, a coefficient of restitution and a coefficient of friction. What formulae would I need to determine ...
-1
votes
2answers
33 views

How do we prove that the initial velocity is equal to final velocity relative to centre of mass?

In elastic collision it is stated that the initial velocity relative to centre of mass is equivalent to final velocity of centre of mass of the same object. How do we prove that?
7
votes
7answers
2k views

Does electron being many places at the same time violate Physics laws?

The following passage has been extracted from the book Parallel Worlds, by Michio Kaku: Because of uncertainty, the electron does not exist at any single point, but exists in all possible ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

How does the Earth rotate, given that the torque acting on it while revolving is zero?

I've come to understand that the torque acting on the Earth while revolving the Earth is zero. Torque is the force responsible for rotation of a body. So how does the Earth rotate?
3
votes
1answer
774 views

Can conservation of momentum be violated?

The law of the conservation of momentum was accepted for year-hundreds. Even in Quantum field theory every particle collision must be momentum-conserving if there is homogenity in space. Can this ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

How does frequency change with centripetal force?

Using the equation $$F_c = {{mv^2}\over{r}}$$ I can see that mass and velocity are directly proportional to centripetal force. I can also see that the radius length is inversely proportional to ...
32
votes
4answers
2k views

Intuition as to why the orientation (of a 3D object) is not a conserved quantity?

Say you start off floating in space, in a fixed position and orientation, with zero linear and angular velocity, with no external forces. So you are a closed mechanical system. By twisting your body ...
22
votes
6answers
2k views

Is the converse of Noether's first theorem true: Every conservation law has a symmetry?

Noether's (first) theorem states that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. Is the converse true: Any conservation law of a physical ...
0
votes
1answer
4k views

Violation of Newton's 3rd law and momentum conservation [closed]

Why and when does Newton's 3rd law violate in relativistic mechanics? Check this link.
2
votes
3answers
400 views

Two dimensional elastic collisions with varying angle of incident

If in an elastic collision I know all initial values and that mass for each object remains constant throughout the collision (but different from one another) how can I determine their final velocity ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Basic question about angular momentum

I've learned that the angular momentum of an object rotating about a fixed axis is $I \omega $. Also, in absence of external torques, $I_1 \omega_1 = I_2 \omega_2 $ (meaning, two different events). I ...
5
votes
4answers
150 views

Thermodynamics thought experiment

There is some ideal gas in a container moving with some velocity on a smooth surface and you suddenly stop it( say by using your hands) , will the temperature of the gas increase? It seems to me that ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Does the similarity of gamma matrices correspond to a conserved quantity?

Gamma matrices have a similarity property, $\gamma^\mu\to S\gamma^\mu S^{-1}$ is a good transformation. Does this transformation correspond to a symmetry of the QED Lagrangian?
-1
votes
1answer
7k views

Conservation of Momentum from Recoil Speed [closed]

A gun has a recoil speed of 2 m/s when firing. If the gun has a mass of 2kg and the bullet has a mass of 10g (0.01 kg) what speed does the bullet come out at? The gun has zero total momentum before ...