The statement that a property of a system does not change if the system is isolated.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
0answers
52 views

Susskind's Theoretical Minimum, Error in General Symmetries Section?

On page 136 of Leonard Susskind's The Theoretical Minimum, Suppose the coordinates of an abstract dynamical system are $q_i$. The general idea of an infinitesimal transformation is that it is a ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Have conservation laws stayed constant since the Big Bang?

By conservation laws I mean quantum number conservation, such as baryon and lepton numbers. As far as I know, we have a reasonable confidence that experimental data confirms a lot of features of our ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Elastic collisions [on hold]

I am referring to emission of photons/electrons (??) by electron bombardment. So I think it goes like this: the electron comes in, hits another atom giving it energy to enable an electron to be ...
0
votes
4answers
102 views

Can a person in a car hitting the interior of the car move the car?

As I remember, on old day explanation, a person in a car hitting the interior of the car cannot move the car, because there is no action and reaction force between the car and ground. But I doubt the ...
37
votes
6answers
6k views

Newton's 3rd law… hitting drywall (which I break) vs hitting a brick (which breaks me)?

According to the Third Newton's law of motion: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. So, I understand that if I hit a brick wall with $50\, \mathrm{lbs}$ of force, the ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

How does this dumbbell rotate?

I am reading the book Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control by J.R. Wertz, and on page 488 it says: My question is: how does the axis of rotation, $\hat{\omega}$, rotate? How does ...
1
vote
2answers
61 views

Question regarding elastic collisions and the conservation of momentum / energy [on hold]

I've been working on this question for a few hours and I cannot quite convince myself that my answer is correct. I've read the relevant section in my textbook, but I guess the lightbulb just isn't ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Principal moment of inertia for a rotating body

My major is not in physics. I am reading the following paper: (my problem is simple and not related with any optimization) http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2841 (p.5~p.6) Suppose The ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How do rockets fly? [duplicate]

Is it that when a rocket loses its mass due to the escaping gases that results in its acceleration due to the same force acting upwards? If so, how is Newton's Third Law associated with it?
-3
votes
0answers
45 views

Movement of a box containig a particle [closed]

A small thought experiment: Imagine a rectangular box in space, containing particle, all resting at $t=0$ from your point of view. At some point in time $t>0$ the particle starts to move with ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Conservation of Energy - Conceptual [closed]

Two springs are attached by a piece of cloth. Both masses of the springs and of the cloth are negligible. The sizes of the cloth also are negligible. The initial tension in the springs are $|\vec{T}| =...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

In the following problem, where did $v_{cm}$ come from? [closed]

In the following problem, where did come from? I don't recall any formula that this equation could be derived from...?
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Conservation of enegry in case of Exploding Projectile [closed]

Consider the following problem : A projectile of mass M explodes, while in flight, into three fragments. One fragment of mass $m_1 =\frac12 M$ travels in the original direction of the projectile. ...
3
votes
0answers
50 views

Number of Independent postulates in Electrodynamics

We know that there are two ways to get charge conservation in electrodynamics by using the following action: $$S[A]~=~\int\! d^4x {\cal L},$$ $$ {\cal L} ~=~{\cal L}_{\rm Maxwell} + {\cal L}_{\rm ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Why isn't mass conservation counted among the laws of thermodynamics? [closed]

Is this purely a historical artifact, a consequence of how the original formulators of the three laws were thinking and experimenting at the time? Or is there a compelling scientific/logical reason ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Does a counterweight eliminate recoil/counter-torque?

A long, long time ago, I remember reading some scifi book that involved catapults whose throwing arm had a counterweight at the other end, such that the arm was balanced. The counterweight was not ...
1
vote
3answers
43 views

Where did 2mv come from in the solution to the question below?

I know that this is an inelastic collission, which is why the two objects have the same final velocity. However, I don't understand why they equated the V1(M+m) to 2mv. Where did they get 2mv from?
-1
votes
2answers
39 views

Total Linear Momentum Conserved for Earth-Sun System? [closed]

According to 'Introductory Astronomy and Astrophysics' by Smith and Jacobs the total linear momentum of an isolated system is constant which they choose as zero, so they get (mv)1 = (mv)2. When I ...
1
vote
2answers
47 views

Why is momentum conserved in a control volumen?

I know momentum is conserved in an isolated system wherein there in not mass nor energy flow and the net resultant external forces are equaly to zero. My doubt is when I'm studying a (fixed) constrol ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

If a generalized coordinate is not cyclic, can we conclude that the corresponding generalized momentum is not conserved?

This is basically the reverse situation to the normal case: We find a cyclic coordinate in the lagrangian function describing the system and can conclude that the corresponding generalized momentum ...
5
votes
1answer
70 views

Electric charge conservation in a superconductor

In a superconductor, $U(1)$ gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken. But $U(1)$ gauge symmetry is responsible for conservation of electric charge. Then it appears to me that the electric charge ...
10
votes
0answers
762 views

Is the amount of the soil reduced when plants grow? [migrated]

According to the principle of mass conservation I think the amount of the soil should be reduced when plants grow. But this reduction is not observable so much. For example, some trees (big trees) ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Rocket Propulsion Equation: Meaning of Net Force

Upon deriving the rocket equation, my textbook (Giancoli) states that the meaning of the net force on the final equation is the net force on M. Note that $M$ and $dM$ are used as the rocket (without ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

law of conservation of linear momentum (Nuclear Engine)

Suppose there is a isolated system in which there is only one stationary rocket. As the rocket is in stationary position the initial momentum will be 0, now nuclear engine is started, as a result ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

What is the difference between a physical constant, a scalar, an invariant, and a conserved quantity?

I don't really know how to properly articulate this question. This question popped into my mind when pondering why the fact that a physical constant like the speed of light doesn't have an associated ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Gradient identity for streamlines

I am studying a 2D flow and I have a resource telling me that the following holds true for streamlines in general. Let $f$ be the density of the flow, and suppose there exists a unique streamline ...
6
votes
1answer
117 views

Why doesn't the relativistic formula for momentum appear consistent with collisions?

The relativistic formula for momentum is $$p = \frac{mv}{\sqrt{1 - \dfrac{v^2}{c^2}}} \,.$$ In the following example, I apply the formula in the most basic way possible to the addition of velocities. ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Two carts on a frictionless rail collide [closed]

There're 2 carts on a frictionless rail. Their masses are $4m$ and $2m$. (The carts are on the rail in this order). The first cart has a velocity of $v_1$. The first cart hits the second. Knowing that ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

How much velocity can a canister of fuel give a spaceship? [closed]

We could approximate a basic solution If we know the mass of the fuel $m$, the mass of the ship $M$ and the amount of energy left in the fuel $E$. So the energy density of the fuel is, $\frac{E}{m} = ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Trouble following an argument about a rocket problem

This is from pages 32-33 of Physics for Mathematicians. A rocket + fuel system of mass $m(t)$ is moving along at velocity $v(t)$, with its fuel being ejected at the velocity (relative to the rocket) $...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Collisions; Linear Momentum [closed]

Let's say we got a rough surface with friction and there are 2 blocks, the block of the left has initial velocity and will collide with the block of the right, which is in rest. Consider an elastic ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Homogenity and Isotropicity of space

In school it is given that law of conservation of momentum is a result of homogeneity of space and law of conservation of angular momentum is a result of isotropicity of space but what is isotropicity ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

Does a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave transfer angular momentum from the transmitter to a receiving antennae?

This question is about the rotation of macroscopic objects and looks at the magnetic vector of an electromagnetic wave. As basis for comparison, we consider an induction motor. The stator induces a ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

If matter cannot be destroyed, does that mean that these particles are created somewhere else after breakdown but in the particles original shape?

In the electron collider, after the breakdown into smaller particles, these particles last for a fraction of a second, and then they disappear. My question is: If matter cannot be destroyed, does ...
38
votes
1answer
2k views

Why was the first discovered neutrino an anti-neutrino?

In the search for neutrinos, Cowan and Reines discovered the electron anti-neutrino and named it as such. Why is the particle they discovered the anti-variety? The reason we call electrons 'electrons'...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Where do the intrinsic parities of particles come from?

It is known that some particles have negative intrinsic parity - for example pion $\pi$. I was wondering if this parity can be understood. I read somewhere that parity of quarks is defined to be ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Integrals of motion for a free particle

I'm struggling to understand the argument on p. 13 in Landau and Lifshitz that for a system with $N$ degrees of freedom there must be $2N-1$ integrals of motion. In particular, I can't understand ...
0
votes
2answers
84 views

If I throw or kick a ball, how much will the Earth move in the opposite direction?

I understand that for momentum to be conserved, if I throw a tennis ball (or kick a football) the Earth must move in the opposite direction to the ball. Obviously this is an infinitesimally small ...
0
votes
1answer
132 views

Is conservation of momentum and energy valid for non-inertial frames?

Conservation laws of momentum and energy are said to be the most basic principles of physics. Are they also valid for non-inertial frames, and in what way?
1
vote
2answers
54 views

Can a system's internal forces change the system's motion?

Let say the motor makes the two rigid body rotate as a same velocity. (they rotate the opposite direction) then the Net force of the motor is 2Fsin(Theta). The acceleration of the motor is 2Fsin(theta)...
0
votes
3answers
58 views

Can internal forces bring any change in momentum of the system?

Imagine a rectangular box placed at the tip of an iceberg; the box contains a man who can freely walk/jump/rotate inside the box. The man walks up to one of the corners of the box and starts jumping. ...
-2
votes
1answer
53 views

Gravity and angular momentum

When a mass moves towards a bigger mass at a constant velocity, they will be attracted to each other such that the smaller mass will revolve around the bigger mass with the same speed as before. ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Energy conservation and time translations

The time translation is given by a finite unitary transformation $$\hat{U_{\tau}}(\hat{H}) = e^{\big(\frac{i}{\hbar}\tau \bar{H}\big)}.$$ Where $$\hat{U_{\tau}}(\hat{H})|\psi(t) \rangle = |\psi(t-\tau)...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

What are some phenomena that can not be described without the help of Newton's third law of motion? [closed]

What are some phenomena that can not be described without the help of Newton's third law of motion? All the phenomena I can think of can be explained with the help of Newton's first law or second law. ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Lorentz transformation and symmetries of the Lagrangian [duplicate]

Since the Lagrangian of our quantum field theories is covariant under Lorentz transformations I'm asking myself if there is any link to some symmetries (like that we get from gauge transformations ...
1
vote
0answers
66 views

Meaning of a Dirac delta speed in 1d shallow-water equations

A 1d thin layer of a fluid of constant density in hydrostatic balance can be modeled by shallow-water equations: $$\begin{align*}\partial_tu+\partial_x\left(v+\frac{u^2}{2}\right)&=0,\\ \...
1
vote
2answers
86 views

Prove energy conservation using Noether's theorem

I wonder how you prove that energy is conserved under a time translation using Noether's theorem. I've tried myself but without success. What I've come up with so far is that I start by inducing the ...
2
votes
2answers
97 views

Newton's Cradle: why does it stay symmetric? [duplicate]

How is it that always the same number of balls leave at the other end in Newton's cradle. I understand that the momentum needs to be conserved, but as momentum is defined as p=m*v couldn't you have a ...
-1
votes
2answers
115 views

Do conservation laws contradict quantum mechanics? [closed]

Take for example the double-slit experiment interpreted in the Copenhagen sense. The particle leaves as an object with mass, yet passes through the slits as a massless wave, only to collapse again as ...
1
vote
2answers
70 views

Where does $W$ boson mass come from in neutron decay?

Here's a diagram of neutron decay. Up and down quarks have rest masses of 2-4 MeV. The $W$ boson has a rest mass of 80 GeV. Where has this extra mass come from?