Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (...
How can a photon (which has momentum) from one electrically charged particle to an oppositely charged particle cause these particles to be pulled toward each other - or how can a magnetic field cause ...
I get why $n \cdot p = n_i^2$ in intrinsic semiconductors, but why is that equation also true in the case of extrinsic semiconductor? Here, $n$ is the charge density of the negatively charged ...
How can gravitons be emitted from a mass to cause an attractive force to another mass? The same question could be asked of attractive e-m forces as well. Don't these violate the conservation of ...
I understand the source of this drift current is thermally excited electron hole pair minority carriers, and that minority carrier excitation is constant (and quite low) at constant temperature. ...