Use for force carrier particles, quanta of characteristic quantum fields, usually gauge fields, such as the quanta of electromagnetic fields (photons), of the electroweak interactions (EW bosons), and of the strong interactions (gluons); elastic forces on on a lattice (phonons); nuclear forces (...

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11
votes
6answers
9k views

Why can't photons have a mass?

Why can't photons have a mass? Could you explain this to me in a short and mathematical way?
28
votes
3answers
7k views

Are W & Z bosons virtual or not?

W and Z bosons are observed/discovered. But as force carrying bosons they should be virtual particles, unobservable? And also they require to have mass, but if they are virtual they may be off-shell, ...
24
votes
5answers
4k views

How are forces “mediated”?

I hope this is the right word to use. To me, these forces seem kind of fanciful (except for General Relativity and Gravity, which have a geometric interpretation). For example, how do two charged ...
38
votes
2answers
4k views

Why is gravity such a unique force?

My knowledge on this particular field of physics is very sketchy, but I frequently hear of a theoretical "graviton", the quantum of the gravitational field. So I guess most physicists' assumption is ...
17
votes
3answers
813 views

Why are all force particles bosons?

All of the force-particles in the standard model are bosons, now my question is pretty short, namely: Why are all force particles bosons? This can't be a coincidence.
49
votes
6answers
29k views

How exactly does gravity work?

The electromagnetic force and strong and weak forces require particles like photons and gluons. But in case of gravity there is no such particle found. Every mass bearing object creates a ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Is the force carrier of the magnetism in a common household magnet a photon?

As I have understood it, the Standard Model includes particles that carry the different forces, e.g. the electromagnetic (EM) force, the gravitational (G) force. When talking about EM fields such as ...
12
votes
4answers
1k views

Why is there a search for an exchange particle for gravity?

If I understand correctly, according to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, mass results in a distortion in space-time. In turn, the motion of the mass is affected by the distortion. A result of ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Higgs-Boson/Graviton [duplicate]

The Higgs boson gives particles mass. And the graviton is the theoretical force-carrier of gravity. Gravity depends on mass. So if the Higgs Boson gives things mass, it therefore gives them gravity. ...
5
votes
3answers
149 views

How is the conservation of momentum satisfied in long-range attraction such as electromagnetism and gravity?

I'm not a physicist, but my understanding is that electromagnetism (including attraction between opposite charges) is mediated by the photon, and gravity is probably (hypothetized to be?) mediated by ...
4
votes
1answer
113 views

Range Of An Interaction

Why is the Compton wavelength $\lambda_c=\frac{\hbar}{mc}$ used as a sensible measure for the range of an interaction, where $m$ is the mass of the corresponding mediator?
1
vote
1answer
95 views

How is the EM force exchanged over long distances?

The Situation Imagine we place two charged objects a very far distance apart, essentially making them point charges. How does the EM force interact between the two point charges if virtual photons ...
1
vote
4answers
132 views

Graviton and photon

I understand that photon is the carrier of a change in the EM field. Is the graviton a carrier of the gravitational field itself or a carrier of a change in the gravitational field?
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Deriving Coulomb's law from quantum electrodynamics [duplicate]

Is it possible to derive the Coulomb's law using the principles of quantum electrodynamics? How?
1
vote
2answers
491 views

Virtual photons as force mediators in QED - really?

If the photon is the force vector for EM interactions, e.g. electrons, how does each electron 'know' where the other one is so that it can send it a photon? I've thought about this for a while. I ...
1
vote
2answers
197 views

How can gravitions exist without violating GR? [duplicate]

How can gravitions exist without violating GR, since GR says that gravity is curvature in space-time.