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14
votes
2answers
2k views

Can He-4 atoms create black holes?

Suppose that in the intergalactic space far from any significant gravitational attractors there is a relatively small concentration of He-4 atoms. Due to gravitational attraction fermions in this case ...
13
votes
3answers
529 views

Why are all force particles bosons?

All of the force-particles in the standard model are bosons, now my question is pretty short, namely: Why are all force particles bosons? This can't be a coincidence.
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Huge confusion with Fermions and Bosons and how they relate to total spin of atom

I am supremely confused when something has spin or when it does not. For example, atomic Hydrogen has 4 fermions, three quarks to make a proton, and 1 electron. There is an even number of fermions, ...
10
votes
2answers
414 views

Is electric charge truly conserved for bosonic matter?

Even before quantization, charged bosonic fields exhibit a certain "self-interaction". The body of this post demonstrates this fact, and the last paragraph asks the question. Notation/ Lagrangians ...
8
votes
1answer
279 views

Who added $\frac{3}{2} \partial^2 c$ to the virasoro BRST current (and why)?

I've been looking at the literature on quantizing the bosonic string, and I noticed that there was a change made in the definition of the BRST current around 1992. However, I haven't found any ...
7
votes
2answers
361 views

Fermions in the same state

I need some clarification of what is meant when someone says "fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state". Consider two bosons: $$\psi(\vec{r_1}, s_1, \vec{r_2}, s_2) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left( ...
7
votes
3answers
291 views

Why do Photons want to be together?

So I've heard that when a photon flies by a atom excited enough to release a photon there's a good chance it will. Because Photons want to be together and have the same direction etc? Is this true? ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

How can a massless boson (Gluon) mediate the short range Strong Force?

I thought massless particles were mediators for long range forces such as electromagnetism and gravitation. How can the massless gluon mediate the short range strong force?
7
votes
2answers
420 views

Is there record of a bosonic Stern-Gerlach measurement?

I cannot seem to find any peer-reviewed (or other) reference to an integer-spin Stern-Gerlach experiment. It shouldn't be too hard to do: just find you friendly neighbourhood Deuterium ion and shoot ...
7
votes
2answers
237 views

Is ground energy of interacting fermions always higher that that of bosons?

Consider two systems, each made of $N$ particles. In both systems particles interact pairwise and the interaction is given by the same Hamiltonian for both systems. Any other constraints and/or ...
7
votes
2answers
271 views

Combining two finite number fock spaces into one

Say I have two separate systems of identical Bosons, one with N Bosons the other with M. System one is described by a state $|\psi_1\rangle$ the other with $|\psi_2 \rangle$ which are expressed in a ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there a reason why the spin of particles is integer or half integer instead of even and odd?

It seems to me that we could change all the current spin values of particles by multiplying them by two. Then we could describe Bosons as even spin particles and Fermions as odd spin particles. Is ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

How do particles become entangled?

A person asked me this and I'm just a lowly physical chemist. I used a classical analogy (how good or bad is this and how to fix?) Basically, light has a net angular momentum of zero, insofar as ...
5
votes
1answer
261 views

Operator norm of creation and annihilation operators

Are the creation and the annihilation operators $a(f)$ and $a^{\dagger}(f)$ for the bosonic Fock space bounded? What is their norm? So far I did not have found any note about this in the linked ...
5
votes
1answer
127 views

Are composite bosons always bosonic (e.g. the pion-cloud surrounding the nuclei)?

The $\pi$-meson is a boson, but consists of quark-antiquark (fermions). It seems to me that at some energy level (equivalently distance) the inner structure (fermionic nature of the quarks) of the ...
5
votes
2answers
146 views

“Bosons are either gapped or condensated, except physical principle protected cases (Goldstone boson, photon).”?

Bosons are either gapped or condensated, except physical principle protected cases (Goldstone boson, photon, etc.). I read this in a paper (version1 of http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.3728v1, 1st page 1st ...
5
votes
1answer
221 views

Probability enhancement for bosons: Probability goes over 1?

It is said that if there is already n bosons in a particular quantum state, the probability of another boson joining them is (n+1) times larger than it would have been otherwise. But if we apply this ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Chemical potential of a Bose gas

In my course, there is this fact : In a Bose gas, the chemical potential $\mu$ must always be lower than the smaller level of energy $\epsilon_0$. I find this strange, because if we put a Bose ...
4
votes
1answer
742 views

Atoms: boson or fermion? [duplicate]

The spin of fundamental particles determines if they are bosons or fermions. The atoms also have bosonic or fermionic behavior, for example $\require{mhchem}\ce{^4He}$ has bosonic and $\ce{^3He}$ has ...
4
votes
2answers
479 views

Composition of squeeze operators?

I'm wondering if it exists a composition law for the squeezing operation ? I guess so for geometric reason, since they are (generalized, and the phase is annoying of course) hyperbolic rotations of ...
4
votes
1answer
123 views

Ground states of Chiral Boson Theory with tunneling

I am reading this paper(pdf) and on page 11, the chiral boson theory on a cylinder is studied when both edges of the cylinder are brought in close proximity so that electron is allowed. Why is it ...
4
votes
1answer
160 views

First order coherence function in terms of momentum distribution function

Can someone show me how the first order coherence function $G^1(r,r')\equiv \left \langle \hat{\Psi}(r)\hat{\Psi}(r') \right \rangle $ for a system of bosons is related to the momentum distribution ...
4
votes
0answers
69 views

Why are interactions always mediated via bosons (as opposed to fermions)? [duplicate]

Weak, Strong and electromagnetic force are mediated via bosons. I've come across the Walecka-model where the exchange particles are $\sigma$ and $\omega$ mesons; bosons again. why are interactions ...
4
votes
2answers
606 views

Spin-statistics theorem proof details

Recently I have read one book where there was some incomprehensible proof of the Pauli's spin-statistics theorem. I want to ask about a few details of the proof. First, the author derives ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Is deuterium a boson or a fermion?

I want to know if deuterium is a fermion or boson. Please give me a descriptive answer. I tried the formula that is the combination of protons and electrons which gives odd number but the answer is ...
3
votes
6answers
490 views

Fermion vs. Bosons and particle vs. wave: is there a link?

I'm puzzled since several years on this basic aspect of quantum mechanics. Quantum theory is supposed to describe particle-wave symmetry of our world. It also describes our universe in term of bosons ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

How do I show that a given Hamiltonian does not affect the overall number of particles in a given state?

I'm struggling with the following problem: Consider a system of an arbitrary number of indistinguishable bosonic particles. The system has two sites and $a_i^{\dagger}$ and $a_i$ are the ...
3
votes
2answers
148 views

Helium Nucleus as boson

I am rather perplexed with this fact that though Helium Nucleus is a boson, the particles insides it: protons and neutrons are essentially fermions. How the nucleus which is made by fermions can be a ...
3
votes
2answers
243 views

Slater's determinant for Bosons/Symmetric Particles?

For Slater's determinant it is obvious how this describes two or multiple fermions/anti-symmetric particles. By definition the determinant introduces a negative sign in front of the second product. ...
3
votes
1answer
195 views

SUSY as the only way to unify bosons and fermions

Is SUSY really the only known approach to "merge"/unify bosons and fermions in a common framework? BONUS question: If SUSY does exist at high energy, it seems unnatural and "not simple" in the sense ...
3
votes
2answers
276 views

Number of gravitons launched by a proton

The wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauge_bosons describes how in QM exchanges of gauge bosons carry force, and describes how the graviton may also be a gauge boson. If the observable ...
3
votes
1answer
261 views

From spectrum/dispersion relation to the partition function

I know the spectrum/dispersion relation for a bosonic system. $$E \left( \mathbf{k} \right) = \cdots$$ Is there a general method for writing down the partition function when the spectrum of the ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Boson calculus and Maximum Weight State

I'm just going over a few past exams for tomorrow, and I've come across a question that I'm having quite a bit of difficulty with. Let $\left|0\right\rangle$ denote the Fock vacuum state so that ...
3
votes
1answer
287 views

Decay of a particle

Would someone please explain the following found on P. 125 of these notes? On the other hand, two $π^0$’s cannot be in an $l = 1$ state. The reason for this is that pions are bosons and so the ...
3
votes
2answers
118 views

Can someone explain the quote “there would be no chemistry if electrons acted as bosons”?

I am reading a book and in a quote it says that if electrons acted as bosons, then all the electrons would occupy the lowest energy state, and there would be no chemistry. What does the author mean ...
3
votes
2answers
795 views

Canonical partition of a boson gas

I have a 1D gas made of $N$ particles placed in a harmonic potential well, so the Hamiltonian is: $$ \mathcal H = \sum_{j=1}^N \left ( \frac{p_j^2}{2m} + \frac{1}{2}m\omega^2 x_j^2 \right )$$ The ...
3
votes
1answer
276 views

Understanding the Bose-Fermi dichotomy

I'm an amateur on a quest to understand QM. In various places (such as early in chapter III.4 of the Feynman Lectures) I have seen an argument that looks like it's trying to convince me that any class ...
2
votes
2answers
62 views

Why don't we have particles whose wavefunctions are symmetric wrt one exchange operator and anti-symmetric wrt other exchange operator?

Consider a system with $n$ identical particles. Let the wavefunction of the system be $\psi(r_1,\ldots, r_2)$. Let $P_{a,b}$ represent the exchange operator which exchanges particle $a$ with particle ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Why does the $Z$ boson not change quark flavour?

Is it just an observation from Particle Accelerators data? I was trying to understand what is it that mathematically stops the $Z$ boson from changing quark flavour, if it is known?
2
votes
4answers
3k views

Meaning of the chemical potential for a boson gas

My lecturer told me that the mu is the Chemical potential is zero or negative, in the following example, mathematically it acts as a Normalisation constant. But is there any Physical insight about why ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

2N Fermions $\stackrel{?}{=}$ N Bosons

We know that we do have composite particles (for example Atoms) made of fermions or bosons or mixture of them with fermionic or bosonic statistics. So why can't a gas of $2N$ fermions become a gas of ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

Bose gas with $T = 0$ and $\mu < 0$

Is it possible to have a Bose gas with $T = 0$ and $\mu < 0$ ? I think that there is a problem, because all the states $k$ are such as $$\langle n_k \rangle = \dfrac{1}{e^{\beta \{\epsilon_k - ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

systems of particles that are not symmetric or anti-symmetric; Helium 4

Suppose I have an electron and a proton, and that the electron is in the spin-up state, and that the proton is in the spin-down state. The particles are distinguishable, so I should just be able to ...
2
votes
1answer
359 views

Vectors of polarizations from vector boson field solution

Let's have the solution for vector boson Lagrangian in form of 4-vector field: $$ A_{\mu } (x) = \int \sum_{n = 1}^{3} e^{n}_{\mu}(\mathbf p) \left( a_{n}(\mathbf {p})e^{-ipx} + b_{n}^{+} (\mathbf p ...
2
votes
1answer
197 views

Almost identical fermions fighting for the same state

In quantum 101, we all learned that identical particles behave strangely, even in the absence of interactions: no two fermions can be in the same state, but bosons love to be in the same state. But ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Do we expect to find a dark energy boson?

Is dark energy expected to be a force carrying particle that interacts with all forms of matter?
2
votes
0answers
55 views

Why we need to suppose the chemical potential is zero here?

I've been working on some statistical mechanics problems and one of them asks to compute the pressure with chemical potential zero of a boson gas whose particles do not interact and whose energies are ...
2
votes
0answers
83 views

Why is the isothermal compressibility of the ideal boson gas larger than of the classical ideal gas?

Recently I came across (or well, derived in a lecture) the isothermal compressibility for an ideal boson gas. This was done in the context of statistical physics, using the quantum version of the ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

Free bosons with an attractive/repulsive defect

Consider a system of non-interacting bosons hopping in a qubic lattice in 2D or 3D. A single site of the lattice is an attractive/repulsive defect. Formally, let $H=-t\sum_{<i,j>}(a_i^\dagger ...
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Could a fundamental particles electric charge or spin be 'given' to them by bosons?

I understand the statement "The Higgs Boson gives particles their mass" is not entirely true, but at least captures the spirit of the idea. What I find curious about it is that mass is an almost ...