A nucleus made of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons equal in number to the protons.

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How to calculate the $g$ degeneracy factor for alkali metals and their singly ionized species?

The Saha ionization equation is $$\frac{n(X_{i+1})}{n(X_{i})} = \frac{(2\pi m k T)^{1.5}}{n_e h^3}\frac{2g_{i+1}}{g_{i}}e^{-\chi/kT}$$ where $\chi$ is the energy difference between the two ...
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0answers
11 views

Why Nitrides have internal polarization?

Why GaN has internal polarization? I know that in wurtzite crystal structure, the atomistic bonds are not equivalent and as a result there appears a net dipole and consequently a polarization. But ...
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2answers
597 views

The distance between touching objects

What is the distance between, say, a cup of coffee and the table it rests on? What is the distance between two touching hands?
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3answers
116 views

The atom, solid or liquid? [closed]

Now I know what you may be thinking, "buddy, do you realize that the quality of solid or liquid is Made by the sum total of atoms in a thing therefore an atom can't be a solid or liquid??" This, good ...
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1answer
53 views

How do mirrors look & behave atomically?

I was observing mirrors recently and I was thinking about how an mirror would look atomically. I was always used to looking at atoms as being colored that said, I was always concerned at how they ...
3
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1answer
47 views

Why is cesium used to measure time in atomic clocks?

Seconds are measured by the frequency emission of cesium. Why is a frequency from the emission spectrum of cesium used as the standard in defining a second? Why particularly cesium?
6
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2answers
638 views

Miniature Neutron Stars?

Is the nucleus of a carbon atom, for example, as dense as a neutron star? I read that neuton stars also contain protons. Thinking more broadly, are we surrounded by quadrillion of quadrillions of ...
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0answers
22 views

What happens when electromagnetically shunken coin is heated

The question is simple: What happens to coin/object that was electromagnetically shrunken by a coin crusher device is then heated until it (I asume) melts? Do I have misconception or not just ...
2
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1answer
119 views

Question about atom subshells

So my teacher told me that EACH shell contains 5 subshells (s, p, d, f, g) but what I don't understand is this The 1st shell has only 1 subshell (and not 5 like he said) and the number of ...
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4answers
490 views

Quantum mechanics threshold

First of all I beg your forgiveness as I am not a physicist and the question I am going to ask may sound silly. I am aware that beyond a certain threshold in the hierarchy of building blocks of ...
1
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1answer
61 views

Formation of atoms question

Could you please, explain to me the logic of the folllowing process as you would do to your 8 y/o sister: Ubiquitousness and stability of atoms relies on their binding energy, which means that ...
2
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2answers
50 views

Do atoms produce synchrotron radiation?

Since synchrotron radiation is created when charged particles are radially accelerated and electrons are definitely orbiting a nucleus (assuming a Bohr model), electron should then logically emit ...
95
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3answers
7k views

How does a knife cut things at the atomic level?

As the title says. It is common sense that sharp things cut, but how do they work at the atomical level?
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0answers
29 views

Books on collision probability and collision processes

Are there any books specifically on collision processes between atoms and molecules and collision probability? I would like to get an overview of the factors that determine collision probability ...
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9answers
200 views

Can I throw a stone through my window without breaking the glass?

As far as I know, most of an atom is vacuum. Therefore, in theory, would it be possible for me to throw a tiny stone through my window without breaking it because no matter actually collides?
2
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3answers
129 views

Can lightly-ionized atoms be accelerated to relativistic speeds with current technology?

I know there're lots of various particle accelerators, which can accelerate particles to TeV's of energy, but it seems they all work on electrons or nuclei or other elementary of tightly-bound ...
28
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4answers
4k views

Has gravity ever been experimentally measured between two atoms?

Has there been any experiments, or are there any references, demonstrating gravity between atoms? If so, what are the key experiments/papers? Or if not, what is the smallest thing that has actually ...
4
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2answers
295 views

Neil deGrasse Tyson says that electrons “teleport” between energy levels?

This page: https://blog.afach.de/?p=62 Discusses the error Neil deGrasse Tyson made when talking about electronic transitions (video included there). Tyson clearly said in his Cosmos series that ...
2
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2answers
86 views

What is Quantum jump of an electron?

Can any one define quantum jump 9 quantities jump of an electron ? I know it it is a silly question but can anyone please explain me in detail.I am a learning about the structure of atom and I want ...
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2answers
76 views

Can a hydrogen atom sit still?

Can we take a single lone hydrogen atom (proton and electron?) and set it in one place and observe it staying there? How about just a proton? A neutron? How about just an electron?
2
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3answers
55 views

Demonstration that vibrating basic particles constitute non-vibrating individuals

I am a dilettante in physics; I ask for pardon for my confusion-causing (if any) terminology usage, and also for my imprecise choice of question tags. I know that basic particles of any individual ...
3
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1answer
62 views

Measuring Atomic Radius of a Noble Gas

How exactly can you measure the atomic radius of a noble gas such as Neon or Helium accurately? Would liquefaction help? I also heard that the aforementioned gases are the only common elements which ...
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0answers
56 views

Formation of atoms [closed]

If a Proton goes toward an Electron with a trajectory that forms a circular motion, these particles will form an atom ?
8
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3answers
1k views

How is it possible for objects to travel faster than the speed of sound when particles interact at the speed of sound

First of all, I am sorry if this is a stupid question but: I've heard that atoms interact with each other at the speed of sound (when you for instance push a chair, the atoms collide with each other ...
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1answer
113 views

What is a real world application of Madam Curie's life work?

As in the title. I know she was working with radioactive atoms and she made huge progress in the field of physics. But where would you find the application of her discoveries in our world? Is it just ...
6
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2answers
77 views

Why do $\beta$ particles not get attracted to the nucleus?

I currently have a very limited knowledge of how radiation works etc, but while sat in class the other day, one question occurred to me that even my teacher could not answer. We have been learning ...
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0answers
79 views

Space between particles [duplicate]

I am a high school student, and I am just wondering what is the space between each particle, like what is the gap around each atom? I have found no text book cover this topic. Is it a vacuum?
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3answers
177 views

What makes materials hard and strong?

This is something I have wondered for a long time. Why are some materials like steel, diamond, and even light materials like graphene stronger than others? Is it due to the strength of the ...
3
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2answers
315 views

Atomic nucleus consisting of only neutrons?

Is it true that the nucleus of all atoms (including radioactive isotopes) contain at least one proton? Is there an atomic nucleus consisting entirely of neutrons? (Let's exclude neutron stars for the ...
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1answer
57 views

Can an object be deconstructed on an atomic Level?

Can a machine deconstruct objects on an atomic level. But is that possible? Not the machine per say but the simple (not that simple) act of what it does. Ex.Taking a broken computer and separating the ...
3
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3answers
51 views

Real silicon atom structure?

Text books say that a pure silicon atom has four electrons in its outermost orbit. How do the scientists know it has four electrons?
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1answer
30 views

Atoms and their bonds in an explosion

I was watching a video and when the car did blow up I asked to me... what happens with the atoms and their bonds when an object blows up of this way? what is the behavior of the atoms and their bonds ...
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2answers
28 views

Stopping an isolated metal ion

If we obtain something like a single isolated hydrogen atom I.e. $H^+$ is it possible by keeping it in a system of charged rings to contain and stop it at the centre of the system? Any positively ...
3
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4answers
222 views

Is there any significance of atomic orbitals?

We have been taught that the atomic orbitals we read about are probability density region of finding electrons of particular energies which are designated by the various quantum numbers. Since, there ...
0
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0answers
63 views

What are the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times in three level atom

Can anyone explain to me what is the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times in three level atom What is the physical meaning of them ? And how I can add the terms of relaxation time to the Bloch ...
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1answer
36 views

Resonating frequencies of atoms

I have a mathematics and computer science background with very little physics. I have read that the resonating frequency of an atom of some element is always exactly the same as the resonating ...
1
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2answers
49 views

Does the doppler shift have any effect on the energy that the atom absorbs?

Does an atom moving towards the light that is falling on it, absorb more energy than when it is stationary? The atom should a see blue shift due to Doppler effect so the atom will see a light of ...
6
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2answers
448 views

Why do electrons in an atom 'fall' back to the ground state?

Why, after absorbing a photon does an atom's electron 'fall' back to its ground state (what causes it to immediately lose its absorbed energy)?
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2answers
94 views

Mathematical description of electron configuration

Does there exist a mathematical model for determining the electron configuration of an atom? I mean the theory which would generalize the notion behind the informal elements of the Aufbau principle.
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1answer
600 views

Have we ever seen an atom? If not, how do we know they exists? [duplicate]

Question is what exactly title says that have we ever seen an atom through any means (microscopes/equipments.etc)? If not, how do we know they exists?
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0answers
61 views

Which particles can go right through the atom?

Can elementary particles (like the electron, photon, or neutrino ) go through an atom (not the nucleus)?
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5answers
1k views

Can we squeeze atoms?

Lets consider few water molecules (or monoatomic noble gas or $H^+$ ions or electron gas) to be present inside a vessel, now if we enclose the vessel with certain hard material which could act as ...
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3answers
143 views

Do atoms of a surface excite to reflect the light?

How do surfaces reflect certain colours and absorb the others?
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1answer
58 views

Angular momentum Bohr's model

I have been trying to derive speed, radius etc. in hydrogen atom using Bohr's postulates and not neglecting the coulombic attraction on proton. I know that they will be revolving around their centre ...
1
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1answer
111 views

How much smaller will be human body, when we hypothetically get of every space between particles [closed]

I had an interesting dream, where advanced civilization compress their body with technology, that turn off space betweens atoms/particles. They travel in small spaceship with billions citizens very ...
0
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3answers
47 views

In what form does proton give energy to electron?

According to Bohr, electron revolves around the nucleus because of force of attraction between electron and proton. This force of attraction gives energy to the electron. So my question is this that- ...
2
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1answer
62 views

Atomic transitions and density: clarification

A laser passes though a cell containing vapor of an alkaline element which causes atomic transitions. I was told that the formula for the atomic density in a Rubidium cell, for example, is given by: ...
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0answers
26 views

An EM problem of polarized sphere

Today, I'm doing an EM problem and my question is exactly the same as this site shows: http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=133501 To reiterate my confusion, why we can't use that integral ...
0
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3answers
180 views

question on dipole moment of water molecule

I read a line today and don't get it: "Molecules with mirror symmetry like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrachloride have no permanent dipole moments." ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Rutherfords alpha scattering conclutions? [duplicate]

Please can some one give me rutherfords observations and his conclutions from each onbservation, I have looked in text books but they only give them sepratly with no direct link betweeen which ...