Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This includes ions as well as neutral atoms and, ...

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Does the definition of the SI unit “second” require that possible perturbation of primary frequency standards should be measured?

The definition of the SI unit "second" is stated as The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground ...
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Electrons skip randomly around their orbits

I read where the electron (as well as a few other particles) skips around in its orbit randomly rather than move around the orbit smoothly. This effect has been repeatedly observed in the laboratory ...
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Why does nuclear waste have to be stored until the constituent elements decay naturally?

Fair warning, I have a bachelors in CS and have chemistry 211/212 under my belt. My understanding of the atom consists of a proton, neutron, and electron quasi-orbiting it in some sort of strange ...
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94 views

Electron distribution around atom when moving

I do not have much experience on this but if an atom has some electrons around nucleus and the atom itself it is moving at some speed does that affect the distribution of electrons around? I am ...
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84 views

Is it reasonable to interpret the Lamb shift as vacuum induced Stark shifts?

This is a pretty hand-wavy question about interpretation of the Lamb shift. I understand that one can calculate the Lamb shift diagrammatically to get an accurate result, but there exist ...
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79 views

What is a covalent bond?

What is a covalent bond, quantum mechanically? How does it hold the two atoms together, and at one point can you qualify the electron as being shated between two atoms, versus feeling attractive ...
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how is feshbach resonance potential term physically produced?

In Feshbach resonance model, a 2*2 potential term with space dependent diagonal and non-diagonal terms is written $\left(\begin{array}{cc} V_{11}(\mathbf{r}) & V_{12}(\mathbf{r})\\ ...
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97 views

What are the assumptions behind “term symbols”?

In multi-electron atoms, the electronic state of the optically active "subshell" is often expressed in "term symbols" notation. I.e. $^{2S+1}L_J$. This presumes that the system of electrons has ...
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87 views

Where does one find pair-correlation functions for various materials?

What is the canonical source for finding pair-correlation functions for atoms in various materials? I am interested in both numeric computations and experimental measurements (like might be obtained ...
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212 views

What is the Landé g factor?

What is the Landé g factor? I know that it gives the relation between magnetic moment and angular moment, but i wanted to know why are those magnitudes related to each other and why is the magnetic ...
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35 views

List of laser-cooled atoms and ions

I'm familiar with the requirements for an atom or ion to be cool-able with laser cooling -- a closed transition -- or close enough that the leaks can be plugged with repumpers. But is there a list of ...
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26 views

Approach to model solvent in a lattice: e.g. H2O in NaCl

If a lattice contains a solvent, lets say NaCl and water of crystallisation, what is the condition for a solvent molecule to change it's location? From my current point of view I assume that such a ...
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43 views

Why is metallic hydrogen degenerate matter?

Why is metallic hydrogen considered a form of degenerate matter, akin to neutronium and electron-degenerate matter? I can understand that for the other two, degeneracy pressure is the only force ...
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71 views

Limits of integration for the radial wave function of the Hydrogen atom in the WKB approximation

I am working a problem where we have to find the energy eigenvalues for the radial wave function of the hydrogen atom for $\ell=0$ using the WKB approximation. I am sure that I set up the integral ...
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84 views

Geometric quantization in Kepler problem in hydrogen atom

Why in the usual geometric quantization calculation the dimensions of eigenspaces is wrong (we can see this obstacle for Kepler problem in hydrogen atom). Here is a refference see
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36 views

Rydberg quasimolecules & stark states?

I found this image : on the internet and I traced it back to this article ,I wanted to use it as part of an architectural visualization for my project(architecture) but for this to happen I need to ...
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79 views

Is a “supercritical charge” in graphene similar to Hawking Radiation?

These papers describe a phenomenon referred to as "atomic collapse" and "supercritical charge" in graphene: Wang et al., Pereira et al. "Atomic collapse" appears when you have a large enough Coulomb ...
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68 views

Laser Transverse/Longitudnal Modes

When we say Laser transverse modes. Is that mean what we will get at the output spot of laser beam ? secondly In practice , what TEM01 or TEMnm means ?
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102 views

Line-shape asymmetry in undergraduate Hydrogen-Deuterium experiment

I'm working as an LA (undergraduate TA) for an undergraduate physics laboratory experiment where students test the Bohr model and use reduced mass to determine the approximate mass of the neutron. In ...
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82 views

Where to find probability density plots for all elements?

Does anyone know where I can find something similar to this, but for all elements? I would love to find something with the same image quality. Also, is there any software that can produce images ...
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28 views

Stimulated emission and coherence

For a significant part of my life I have been taught that, if a photon of the "correct" energy meets an excited atom, the atom will then (with a certain probability) undergo transition to a lower ...
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29 views

Most atoms have a nonzero magnetic moment, right?

This is my feeling. But more is different. If atoms form a solid, it is hard to say whether the solid will be ferromagnetic or not.
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29 views

Covalent Bonds, Varities and Limits!

Related:http://chemistry.stackexchange.com/q/9459/ I was wondering, covalent bonds tend to share two electrons, apparently rarely more than three, and normally between two electrons. Can someone give ...
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86 views

Thermal expansion of two bolts

I have this question asking me about the thermal expansions of two bolts, a steel one, and a brass one. I have the equation: $\ (\delta L/L)/T = \alpha $ I don't understand how I can use this ...
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26 views

An EM problem of polarized sphere

Today, I'm doing an EM problem and my question is exactly the same as this site shows: http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=133501 To reiterate my confusion, why we can't use that integral ...
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47 views

Effective Spin Interaction in Helium

My question is: what is the point of forming an effective spin-spin interaction for the exchange term in the variational analysis of Helium? Is there any significance to this term other than on ...
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35 views

Vacancy Generation / Annihilation Time (Relaxation Time)

Vacancy Generation/Annihilation Time, Recombination Time and Relaxation Time ($\tau$) are all synonymously used in atomic physics literatures. They're defined as the time that it takes for vacancies ...
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38 views

spread of fock state distribution and infinite revival time of rabi oscillation in spontaneous emission

In cavity QED for a 2-level atom, the revival time for oscillation b/w the states $\left|\ e\ 0\right\rangle$ and $\left|\ g\ 1\right\rangle$ (absorbing the same photon that is emitted) is said to be ...
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66 views

Electrostatic potential of a proton

I have been working on a quantum mechanical problem regarding the ground state of the Hydrogen atom. It appears that the best way to solve the underlying problem is to modify the electrostatic ...
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160 views

How do I write the Hamiltonian for a 3-level system?

I came across following types of three-level systems like V-system, Λ-system and 2-photon absorption It seems that their Hamiltonians can be written intuitively by checking out the coupled levels ...
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62 views

How to absorb a characteristic line in a spectrum

I have an x-ray tube. When I see the spectrum, I notice the characteristic lines of the anode. What do I have to do if I want to absorb a characteristic line? I have thought that I can add a filter. ...
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42 views

Exchange operator and magnetism

in my atomic physics lecture notes it is said that depending on the values of the exchange operator $K_{ij}$ there can be different kinds of magnetism, say, ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism, how ...
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239 views

General question on aligning a quantization axis

I have a general question on how to work with quantization axis. Here is the setup: I am looking at a single two-level atom placed at the origin $(0, 0, 0)$, which is unperturbed in the sense that ...
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11 views

Applicability of Fano resonance

I know that Fano resonance$^{1,2}$ can be applied for the interaction between a discrete excited state, $|\phi_0\rangle$, and a continuum of excited states, $|\phi_E\rangle$. These are related to ...
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31 views

Charge density within radius r from the nucleus

The probability of finding an electron within radius $r_b$ for Hydrogen near the center ($r_b<< a_0$) is approximately equal to zero (according to 1s orbital curve). Does this imply that the ...
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44 views

How to read this state in quantum physics?

I am having a little trouble understanding this state: $$ \,^3D\left[3/2\right]_{1/2} $$ What does the $[3/2]$ indicate here?
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31 views

Polarizable molecule in E-field

If we have a linear molecule with a dipole moment $\mu$ in a static electric field $E$, the potential is given by $V = - \langle \mu,E \rangle$. What is the appropriate equation for the potential if ...
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32 views

Computing fine structure of terms in LS coupling,

In order to compute the fine structure of the terms in LS coupling (Russell-Saunders coupling), we must treat the hamiltonian $$H_2 = \sum_{\mbox{open subshells}} \xi(r_i) \vec{l_i}\cdot\vec{s_i}$$ ...
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15 views

Why photoelectron imaging is a 'complete' measurement?

In many articles and books, it says that photoelectron imaging gives a 'complete' information. What is mean by 'complete' measurement or a 'complete' information? Through photoelectron imaging ...
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14 views

Dipole and multipole bound state anions: Do these bound electrons behave exactly like conventional electrons in the molecular orbitals?

Recently, I read about dipole and multipole bound anions. Dipole bound anions are those, if I understood correctly, when an electron is attached electrostatically on a neutral molecule which is polar. ...
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23 views

Coulomb splitting in atomic physics

In atomic physics, if a configuration with equivalent electrons in some shell (say Neodymium : $[Xe] 6s^24f^4$) gives same $L = \sum_i l_i$ and $S = \sum_i s_i$ ($i$ denoting individual spin and ...
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17 views

Physics of a conductor gaining potential

Working on electrical engineering but thus far, the physics stack has proven to be a better place to read and ask questions in order to develop a better overall understanding. I am currently waist ...
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63 views

Questions on electron orbits

I have three questions to ask: Why do electrons (in an atom) specifically move in orbits and not some other type of motion? Where does the energy comes from, for the electron to move at much higher ...
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36 views

Difficult to visualize Franck-Condon overlap

The franc condon principle says about the vertical transitions, means the coordinates of the nuclei remains unchanged during an electronic transition. But, what is the physical meaning or how to ...
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196 views

Probability of absorption and emission of photons

Suppose you have a single electron in a box, and you shoot a single photon at it. How does one calculate the probability that the photon will be absorbed and the particle excited? Or that the photon ...
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33 views

Factors defining interaction between atoms and molecules

Let's say we have a stuff that consists only of hydrogen (H), then we add a single atom of oxygen (O) and they interfere - we get a water molecule where atoms are arranged in a particular way. Then we ...
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38 views

Total scattering rate of light for an atomic transition given a laser field with an intensity distribution?

I have a laser with an intensity distribution $I(\lambda)$ over a broad wavelength range (arroun 40 nm), I want to calculate the total scattering rate due to the full spectrum of the laser; the the ...
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383 views

Is it theoretically possible for a person to pass through a solid wall/object?

I understand that matter cannot pass through other solid matter because of the electrons that orbit an atom prevents this but I was curious to know if it is theoretically possible to somehow get ...
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157 views

Derivative of $\epsilon$ in Lennard-Jones equation

I just want to calculate the derivative of epsilon for the following Lennard-Jones equation: LJ = $4\sqrt{\epsilon_{ii} \epsilon_{jj}}$ $[(\sigma/ r)^{12}-(\sigma/r)^{6}]$ with respect to ...
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158 views

Breaking of a covalent bond

When a bond between two atoms is broken, why only one electron is released. Why not two? (as two electrons make up a covalent bond.)