Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This includes ions as well as neutral atoms and, ...

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Is it reasonable to interpret the Lamb shift as vacuum induced Stark shifts?

This is a pretty hand-wavy question about interpretation of the Lamb shift. I understand that one can calculate the Lamb shift diagrammatically to get an accurate result, but there exist ...
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61 views

Driving $\sigma$ transition with light in superposition of $\pi_x$ and $\pi_y$ polarization of slightly different frequencies

Lets assume the following experiment. Circularly polarized laser light is sent through a Mach-Zender interferometer $\left(l_1 = l_2 \sim \,\mathrm{cm}\right)$ made up of polarizing beam splitters ...
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29 views

Fermi's understanding of the Doppler effect

I am now reading the classic paper by Dicke, The Effect of Collisions upon the Doppler Width of Spectral Lines At the very beginning of the paper, Dicke said ''Quantum mechanically, the Doppler ...
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91 views

What is a covalent bond?

What is a covalent bond, quantum mechanically? How does it hold the two atoms together, and at one point can you qualify the electron as being shated between two atoms, versus feeling attractive ...
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51 views

how is feshbach resonance potential term physically produced?

In Feshbach resonance model, a 2*2 potential term with space dependent diagonal and non-diagonal terms is written $\left(\begin{array}{cc} V_{11}(\mathbf{r}) & V_{12}(\mathbf{r})\\ ...
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108 views

What are the assumptions behind “term symbols”?

In multi-electron atoms, the electronic state of the optically active "subshell" is often expressed in "term symbols" notation. I.e. $^{2S+1}L_J$. This presumes that the system of electrons has ...
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93 views

Where does one find pair-correlation functions for various materials?

What is the canonical source for finding pair-correlation functions for atoms in various materials? I am interested in both numeric computations and experimental measurements (like might be obtained ...
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262 views

What is the Landé g factor?

What is the Landé g factor? I know that it gives the relation between magnetic moment and angular moment, but i wanted to know why are those magnitudes related to each other and why is the magnetic ...
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46 views

Understanding quantum coherence in biological processes (Magnetoreception)

Moved my questions to the top. Context below. Why is the strength of the electric field and the coupling constant being compared to the inverse coherence time? What is the inverse coherence time? Is ...
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34 views

Atomic physics, determining levels and terms

In atomic physics I understand there a configurations, terms and levels. I think levels for instance appear because of spin-orbit interactions, so that terms are split. But I'm confused about the ...
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44 views

Why is the water diamagnetic?

I checked using my permanent magnet that water is diamagnetic. But why is it like that? Does this have any important consequence for life?
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56 views

List of laser-cooled atoms and ions

I'm familiar with the requirements for an atom or ion to be cool-able with laser cooling -- a closed transition -- or close enough that the leaks can be plugged with repumpers. But is there a list of ...
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47 views

Approach to model solvent in a lattice: e.g. H2O in NaCl

If a lattice contains a solvent, lets say NaCl and water of crystallisation, what is the condition for a solvent molecule to change it's location? From my current point of view I assume that such a ...
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99 views

Why is metallic hydrogen degenerate matter?

Why is metallic hydrogen considered a form of degenerate matter, akin to neutronium and electron-degenerate matter? I can understand that for the other two, degeneracy pressure is the only force ...
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128 views

Limits of integration for the radial wave function of the Hydrogen atom in the WKB approximation

I am working a problem where we have to find the energy eigenvalues for the radial wave function of the hydrogen atom for $\ell=0$ using the WKB approximation. I am sure that I set up the integral ...
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106 views

Geometric quantization in Kepler problem in hydrogen atom

Why in the usual geometric quantization calculation the dimensions of eigenspaces is wrong (we can see this obstacle for Kepler problem in hydrogen atom). Here is a refference see
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53 views

Rydberg quasimolecules & stark states?

I found this image : on the internet and I traced it back to this article ,I wanted to use it as part of an architectural visualization for my project(architecture) but for this to happen I need to ...
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100 views

Is a “supercritical charge” in graphene similar to Hawking Radiation?

These papers describe a phenomenon referred to as "atomic collapse" and "supercritical charge" in graphene: Wang et al., Pereira et al. "Atomic collapse" appears when you have a large enough Coulomb ...
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110 views

Line-shape asymmetry in undergraduate Hydrogen-Deuterium experiment

I'm working as an LA (undergraduate TA) for an undergraduate physics laboratory experiment where students test the Bohr model and use reduced mass to determine the approximate mass of the neutron. In ...
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87 views

Where to find probability density plots for all elements?

Does anyone know where I can find something similar to this, but for all elements? I would love to find something with the same image quality. Also, is there any software that can produce images ...
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24 views

How is it possible to combine various techniques in cold atom experiments?

I’ve been reading about laser-trapped cold atoms (6Li in particular, which is a fermion) and was amazed at the number of things to keep track of in the experiments, just to gain that degree of control ...
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15 views

Can a light element with excited nucleus undergo internal conversion

Internal conversion occurs when an excited nucleus ejects a low level electron from the first 2 low energy shells such as a k shell electron instead of emitting gamma when returning to ground state. ...
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14 views

Does the mass of a nucleus increase when it is excited to higher energy levels

If we consider an atomic nucleus that is excited to a higher energy level. This maybe due to absorption of gamma for example or as a result of some other decay or interaction. Would the mass of that ...
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20 views

symmetry group of multi-electron atom

Neglecting spin effects, the energy levels of multi-electron atoms are characterized by states of definite total orbital ($L^2$) and spin angular momentum ($S^2$). From this it seems that the ...
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39 views

How is an atom ionized by electron impact?

Can someone walk me through in detail what happens when an atom is ionized by colliding with an electron? I would prefer a solid example so I can understand it more concretely. What I think:- -The ...
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17 views

About atomic transitions

I accomplished my homework but it opened a whole pandora's box of things I do not quite understand, so I would appreciate help. In x direction linearly polarized light excites atom transition from ...
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30 views

What happens when you use an electric field to match atom oscillations?

I've been thinking about this question for the last few days: "What happens when you either use an electric field or sound / light to match the frequency of the atomic lattice?" What would happen to ...
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48 views

Are ultracold atoms only created by intelligent life?

Nature has particle accelerators that are far beyond our capacity, but occasionally I hear atomic physicists claim that they are able to make something that has never been formed in any natural ...
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44 views

Crystal field in Diamond

The crystal field effect occurs in ionic crystals and causes a splitting of the magnetic quantum levels of the cation. The magnitude of the splitting may be roughly computed by obtaining the potential ...
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80 views

How does electron excitation work for the Bohr model with non hydrogen atoms?

I've seen a lot of explanations of electron excitation by photons in the Bohr model but they all use a hydrogen atom which only has one electron. How does the excitation work for atoms with more ...
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98 views

Hydrogen 2p3/2 -> 1s1/2 transition polarisation and angular distribution

Could you please help me. I have to calculate the intensity angular and polarisation distribution in hydrogen electric dipole transition $\text{2p}_{3/2}\rightarrow \text{1s}_{1/2}$. To do this I ...
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31 views

Property of $Cu$ so that it is used as target in in X-ray diffraction (XRD)?

Why only $Cu$ is used as target element in X-ray diffraction (XRD)? Why not other elements? And which rays has high intensity $k_\alpha$ or $k_\beta$?
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219 views

How to calculate the $g$ degeneracy factor for alkali metals and their singly ionized species?

The Saha ionization equation is $$\frac{n(X_{i+1})}{n(X_{i})} = \frac{(2\pi m k T)^{1.5}}{n_e h^3}\frac{2g_{i+1}}{g_{i}}e^{-\chi/kT}$$ where $\chi$ is the energy difference between the two ...
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133 views

Stimulated emission and coherence

For a significant part of my life I have been taught that, if a photon of the "correct" energy meets an excited atom, the atom will then (with a certain probability) undergo transition to a lower ...
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45 views

Polarizable molecule in E-field

If we have a linear molecule with a dipole moment $\mu$ in a static electric field $E$, the potential is given by $V = - \langle \mu,E \rangle$. What is the appropriate equation for the potential if ...
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17 views

Spatial Resolution in Magnetocardiography

In the science paper called Development of an optical cardio-magnetometer by George Bison, it is mentioned that spatial resolution of 10-20mm is required for mapping MCG signal(page 52). What does the ...
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34 views

Most atoms have a nonzero magnetic moment, right?

This is my feeling. But more is different. If atoms form a solid, it is hard to say whether the solid will be ferromagnetic or not.
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295 views

Thermal expansion of two bolts

I have this question asking me about the thermal expansions of two bolts, a steel one, and a brass one. I have the equation: $\ (\delta L/L)/T = \alpha $ I don't understand how I can use this ...
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30 views

An EM problem of polarized sphere

Today, I'm doing an EM problem and my question is exactly the same as this site shows: http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=133501 To reiterate my confusion, why we can't use that integral ...
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47 views

Vacancy Generation / Annihilation Time (Relaxation Time)

Vacancy Generation/Annihilation Time, Recombination Time and Relaxation Time ($\tau$) are all synonymously used in atomic physics literatures. They're defined as the time that it takes for vacancies ...
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46 views

spread of fock state distribution and infinite revival time of rabi oscillation in spontaneous emission

In cavity QED for a 2-level atom, the revival time for oscillation b/w the states $\left|\ e\ 0\right\rangle$ and $\left|\ g\ 1\right\rangle$ (absorbing the same photon that is emitted) is said to be ...
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73 views

Electrostatic potential of a proton

I have been working on a quantum mechanical problem regarding the ground state of the Hydrogen atom. It appears that the best way to solve the underlying problem is to modify the electrostatic ...
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241 views

How do I write the Hamiltonian for a 3-level system?

I came across following types of three-level systems like V-system, Λ-system and 2-photon absorption It seems that their Hamiltonians can be written intuitively by checking out the coupled levels ...
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67 views

How to absorb a characteristic line in a spectrum

I have an x-ray tube. When I see the spectrum, I notice the characteristic lines of the anode. What do I have to do if I want to absorb a characteristic line? I have thought that I can add a filter. ...
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51 views

Exchange operator and magnetism

in my atomic physics lecture notes it is said that depending on the values of the exchange operator $K_{ij}$ there can be different kinds of magnetism, say, ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism, how ...
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360 views

General question on aligning a quantization axis

I have a general question on how to work with quantization axis. Here is the setup: I am looking at a single two-level atom placed at the origin $(0, 0, 0)$, which is unperturbed in the sense that ...
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Accounting for the Thermal Excitation in the Richardson-Dushmann Equation or the Work Function Equation?

When accounting for thermal excitation in a system that is not in thermal equilibrium, heat is constantly flowing through a material, should I account for the thermal excitation in the work function ...
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15 views

Effect of nucleus geometry and states on the Coulomb barrier and the electric potential well surrounding the nucleus

In some models of the nucleus it has a geometric aspect due to the combination and alignments of the charges, magnetic moments and spins of the protons and neutrons it contains. Even in models that ...
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Coupling schemes

If it is multi electron system LS or JJ coupling schemes are used to evaluate total angular momentum (J value). Now my doubt, whether we have to consider all electrons or electrons in the outermost ...
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46 views

Electron energy in magnetic field

For a problem early in a book I'm reading (Quantum Mechanics by Albert Messiah), I'm asked the following: Consider an electron following a circular trajectory in a constant magnetic field $H$ (I'm ...