Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This includes ions as well as neutral atoms and, ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

12
votes
8answers
2k views

Where did Schrödinger solve the radiating problem of Bohr's model?

One of the problems with Bohr's theory to describe the hydrogen atom, was that the electron orbiting around the nucleus has an acceleration. Therefore it radiates and loses energy, until it would ...
27
votes
5answers
2k views

If photon energies are continuous and atomic energy levels are discrete, how can atoms absorb photons?

If photon energies are continuous and atomic energy levels are discrete, how can atoms absorb photons? The probability of a photon having just the right amount of energy for an atomic transition is ...
8
votes
4answers
549 views

Huge confusion with Fermions and Bosons and how they relate to total spin of atom

I am supremely confused when something has spin or when it does not. For example, atomic Hydrogen has 4 fermions, three quarks to make a proton, and 1 electron. There is an even number of fermions, ...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Does it exist a free good molecule / atom simulation software?

I'm looking for a software or software package (for example C/C++) that can simulate a lot (say thousands at least) of molecules in action (ie. in movement or attached to say static walls). I have ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

What keeps electrons in an atom from flying away or falling into the nucleus?

In atoms, what force or charge, etc. keeps electrons from flying away or into their nucleus? is there a kind of weak-force at work on the atomic scale? Note I am aware the electron positions are ...
37
votes
5answers
3k views

Why are most metals gray/silver?

Why do most metals (iron, tin, aluminum, lead, zinc, tungsten, nickel, etc.) appear silver or gray in color? (What atomic characteristics determine the color?) What makes copper and gold have ...
6
votes
4answers
883 views

Intrinsic structure of electron

The electron contains finite negative charge.The same charges repel each other.What makes electron stable and why does it not burst? Is it a law of nature that the electron charge is the smallest ...
11
votes
5answers
3k views

Which experiments prove atomic theory?

Which experiments prove atomic theory? Sub-atomic theories: atoms have: nuclei; electrons; protons; and neutrons. That the number of electrons atoms have determines their relationship with other ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

Does there exist electric field around all the substances?

A system of two equal and opposite charges separated by a certain distance is called an electric dipole. Electric dipole moment ($p$) is defined as the product of either charge ($q$) and the ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

How to absorb a characteristic line in a spectrum

I have an x-ray tube. When I see the spectrum, I notice the characteristic lines of the anode. What do I have to do if I want to absorb a characteristic line? I have thought that I can add a filter. ...
5
votes
5answers
808 views

What do we actually mean when we say that matter is a wave?

What do we actually mean when we say that matter is a wave? What does the wavelength of this matter wave indicate? The idea of a particle behaving like a wave is kinda incomprehensible to me. ...
3
votes
1answer
411 views

Why do most metals appear silver in color with gold being an exception from a scattering and EM viewpoint?

Related: Why are most metals gray/silver? After reading Johannes’ impressive answer to Ali Abbasinasab question of why do most metals appear silver in color with the exception of gold (and copper), ...
9
votes
5answers
357 views

Does an electron move from one excitation state to another, or jump?

I'm wondering, when an electron changes state, does it move from one state to another over some (very small) time period? Or does it change from one state to another in no time? If the former, what ...
4
votes
3answers
246 views

Do electrons in multi-electron atoms really have definite angular momenta?

Since the mutual repulsion term between electrons orbiting the same nucleus does not commute with either electron's angular momentum operator (but only with their sum), I'd assume that the electrons ...
3
votes
1answer
119 views

Which green spectral line(s) are emitted in a Thomson tube?

Related: What is meant by boiling off electrons in a heater coil? In the Thomson tube we used in our class to produce an electron beam, the lab manual stated that the tube was filled with a low ...
2
votes
1answer
289 views

A Simple Explanation for the Schrödinger Equation and Model of Atom? [closed]

I tried reading the Wikipedia article to no avail - I simply cannot understand the Schrödinger Equation (what does each of the variables mean, especially the wave function), and the Schrödinger Model ...
6
votes
4answers
4k views

Why do covalent bonds form?

why in a covalent bond are "the bonded electrons are in a lower energy state than if the individual atoms held them at the same proximity"? Also is it correct that " I think when you start pushing ...
5
votes
3answers
784 views

If atoms never “physically” touch each others, then how does matter-antimatter annihilation happen?

It is known that matter and antimatter annihilate each others when they "touch" each others. And as far as I know, the concept of "touching" as our brain gets it is not true on the atomic level since ...
2
votes
3answers
447 views

Disproving a refutation of quantum mechanics (QM) via a calculation of the ground state of the helium atom

This website http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~kcy05t/ appears to refute Quantum mechanics using some proof. An important paper involved is this 'Calculation of Helium Ground State Energy by Bohr's ...
6
votes
1answer
647 views

Is Palladium an exception?

I have been taught in school that atoms cannot have more than 8 electrons in the outer shell. Palladium atom's electron configuration is 2,8,18,18. Why isn't it 2,8,18,17,1 like the case of Platinum ...
4
votes
2answers
207 views

Is the photon energy required to cause an atomic transition $\Delta E+\Delta KE$, where $\Delta E$ is the “transition energy”?

An atom "at rest" can absorb a photon, and while some of this energy goes into increasing the energy level of the electron, momentum must be conserved, and so some energy must also increase the ...
2
votes
2answers
133 views

Principle of Reflection on atomic level

The well observed phenomenon has besides several others has always been a fascination to me, we are well aware of several theories, experiments and practical applications of the well known phenomenon. ...
1
vote
2answers
63 views

How exactly do protons and electrons interact with each other?

How do these particles exchange information about charge and position between themselves, even though there's mostly empty space between them? Also what happens if a free electron passes closer to a ...
1
vote
2answers
533 views

Continuous vs. Discrete Spectra in various materials

I read that the reason solids emit continuous spectra is that they don't have time to let their electrons decay-they are too close together. Given that electrons decay on the order of 100 nanoseconds ...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

Can atoms have nonzero dipole moments?

Let's make the question easier by considering two-level atoms(with spin states, i.e. spin up $|\uparrow\rangle$ and spin down $|\downarrow\rangle$). An article I recently read claims that atoms do not ...
1
vote
1answer
628 views

Energy required for ionizing Helium

The energy required to remove both electrons from the helium atom in its ground state is 79.0 eV. How much energy is required to ionize helium (i.e., to remove one electron)? ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Where do electrons get the energy to remain in orbit? [duplicate]

As we know electrons continuously revolve around the nuclus without falling in it at a high velocity beating it's force of attraction. My question is where do electrons get energy to revolve around ...
1
vote
1answer
760 views

Explanation of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and their relationship

Why are the energy levels of molecules, the atoms that form them and the nuclei inside the atoms considered separately? Or phrased in a different way- what is it that makes their energy levels so ...