Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. This includes ions as well as neutral atoms and, ...

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Can an electron jump to a higher energy level if the energy is insufficient or exceeds the ΔE

Lets say we have an atom of hydrogen. It has one electron on E1 = -13.6 eV (E2 = -3.4 eV) energy level. I know that if we fire a photon with 10.2 eV energy the hydrogen atom will absorb it and the ...
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23 views

Probability of splitting nucleus

I'm sorry if this is a dumb question, but I was just wondering. Say we have a 20 x 20 cm sheet of sulphur, and we have a knife made of iron. If I take the knife, and repeatedly cut the sulphur for an ...
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3answers
98 views

How is the motion of electron in p orbital?

Does an electron in p orbital move around nucleus or move randomly in any individual lobe of p orbital. if it were to move around nucleus then does p orbital move along with it?
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3answers
242 views

How could an s and p subshell occur together in an atom?

s: Subshell of an atom has spherical shape. p: Subshell is a dumb-bell shaped with a node at center of the atom. If we put two shells together they would intersect in an atom. In such a model, ...
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328 views

Are chemical bonds matter?

So it recently blew my mind that chemical bonds have mass. And that a spring that's wound up similarly weights a little more. But there is a distinction between mass and matter. I believe that a ...
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40 views

Nuclear Fusion using magnetic fields

I was wondering if you could use a very strong magnetic field to produce nuclear fusion. The basic idea is a spherical cavity containing Deuterium (and possibly tritium) nuclei whose walls will be ...
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1answer
99 views

How did de Broglie 'fix' Bohr's model?

Bohr's model was created to fix Rutherford's because his model was unstable due to nucleus spiral and so forth. Thus, Bohr postulated three ideas which solved this instability issue. My textbook then ...
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243 views

A Question on Bohr's model of atom [duplicate]

When an electron revolves around a nucleus, It uses its energy in form of kinetic energy and so it release energy and then moves . It means that it release energy continuously, Otherwise, if it does ...
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1answer
230 views

$\pi$, $\sigma$ - atomic transitions with respect to the magnetic field axis

I am confused about the atomic transition with different polarized lights. I post the pictures as follows. There are four cases. In case 1, the right-handed circular polarized light ...
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1answer
39 views

Hydrogen atom nodes and Bohmian trajectories

Wouldn't the fact that the solutions to the hydrogen atom orbital shape have nodes prove that the Bohmian interpretation is incorrect, since in that interpretation, the electrons would have a fixed ...
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1answer
85 views

Why don't we consider the electromagnetic field in the equations of Bohr's theory of atoms? [duplicate]

hi,i know these, my mean that the magnitude magnetic field B formule that i find here my question is that we consider Coulomb force in Bohr's theory but don't consider the electromagnetic field? An ...
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30 views

Does an electron's orbital speed affect the potential for a bond to form or break?

Many experiments and text books confirm that (in the contemporary fashion) the orbit of an electron will speed up or slow down due to the orientation of a magnetic field. "Effect of a Magnetic Field ...
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7answers
942 views

Why is absorption spectrum a line spectrum?

The minimum energy required to excite a hydrogen electron is 10.2 eV. When photons of energy spread over a continuous range of wavelengths fall on a sample of hydrogen, why are only those photons ...
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1answer
44 views

Deexcitation times for ytterbium

I need to find the deexcitation times for the transitions found in Figure 1 of Nature Phys. 8, 649 (2012), arXiv:1206.4507. That is, what is the deexcitation time for the following transitions: $$ ...
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0answers
67 views

Is the difference between: Spin-orbit coupling and The Anomalous Zeeman effect only an external magnetic field?

I am having a hard time figuring out what the difference between spin-orbit coupling, fine structure, and the Anomalous Zeeman Effect is. As far as I have understood fine structure is just the over ...
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2answers
177 views

Calculating the radius and potential energy of an atom?

Is there a general equation that gives the potential energy of any element at each energy level? I know that there is an equation for the potential energy of a hydrogen atom at each energy level but ...
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1answer
55 views

Working out atomic clock accuracy using measured frequency Hz, error and beat Hz

I've got a question where $200,000\,{\rm Hz}$ applied to the Cesium atoms and from the mismatch with the atom's natural frequency, we get a "beat" of $2\,{\rm Hz}$. The error is $1\%$. The accuracy ...
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2answers
66 views

What are the consequences of the angular momentum of the electron in an atom?

Well, since the electron is going around the nucleus, it must have an angular momentum (plus its spin). And since it is charged it must create an electric field. If I have understood it correctly it ...
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2answers
127 views

Why/How do the coefficients associated with atomic orbitals superposed to form hybrid orbital determine their spatial orientation?

In my previous Phys.SE question, I asked for why $ \newcommand{\k}[2]{\langle #1|#2 \rangle} c_1,c_2,c_3,c_4$ in $$\psi_{sp^3}= c_1\psi_{2s}+ c_2\psi_{2p_{x}} + c_3\psi_{2p_y}+ c_4\psi_{2p_{z}}$$ ...
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2answers
89 views

Novel atomic clocks: can quantum and many-body effects help?

I am trying to learn if there are any proposals concerning the application of quantum and many-body effects to atomic clocks. From what I understand, optical lattices have been used for timekeeping ...
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1answer
57 views

FWHM of different spectra and separation in fine structure

I'm doing some research on spectroscopy and there are some phenomena I can't explain (only a second year physics student). I took some spectra of neon in the 659.89529 nm and then of hydrogen at ...
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2answers
67 views

Does chemical energy contribute to mass? [duplicate]

Does chemical energy contribute to the mass of an object? I don't mean the bond energy, but the possible energy that could be released (i.e. Does an atom of oxygen and a molecule of hydrogen (H2) have ...
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3answers
103 views

How to measure thickness of an ultra-thin metal layer?

I have a sample of a metal (aluminum/oxide) layer with a gradual thickness ranging from monolayer to 100nm. This layer is deposited on a transparent substrate, like glass. How can I measure this ...
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0answers
39 views

How does positronium work?

I've heard that in positronium, electrons and positrons orbit each other before annihilating one another shortly after. However, I thought that electrons never orbit anything, but instead have a ...
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40 views

Could there be ways to form hypergiant stars, quasars or supermassive black holes at the beginning of the Dark Ages?

Original title: Heat loss in collapsing parcels of gas or weak plasma at the beginning (not the end) of the cosmological dark ages Star formation from collapsing parcels of primordial gas in the late ...
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66 views

Formation of bonds and heat release

We know when there's formation of bonds during chemical reaction there's heat release to the surrounding due to conservation of energy. But what I am confused about, is the kinetic energy of the ...
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1answer
109 views

Bohr atomic model: does the electron fall?

I know this is a classical system, and thus not compliant with the quantum nature of real atoms. But please bare with me. I have heard this before: the orbiting electron should radiate in the ...
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2answers
117 views

Do electrons always have a probability of being somewhere?

In the same way as when they surround a nucleus? How about when electrons go through wires or are ejected as beta particles? Do they still only have probabilities of being somewhere, or...?
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2answers
146 views

Why do heavy nuclei have half lives

Why do heavy nuclei have half-lives if they are unstable why do they take millions of years to break down in some cases why don't they simple do it instantly? What makes them stay together?
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2answers
71 views

Trying to understand lowest configurations of carbon

My study group is debating about which are the three lowest configurations of carbon. I've been arguing that the electron has to jump to the 3s level for the configuration to be different. Others have ...
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2answers
143 views

Could I turn into a nuclear bomb?

Just out of curiousity, could the nuclei of our atoms split via quantum tunnelling, thereby leading to nuclear reactions and ultimately turning us into atomic bombs? I know that this is ...
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18 views

Modelling populations of GE isotopes

I asked a question similar to this here: What combination of stable GE isotopes make up the germanium in a Ge(Li) spectrometer And got some very good answers. This question is instead based on the ...
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19 views

What combination of stable GE isotopes make up the germanium in a Ge(Li) spectrometer

I work with a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer. I'm trying to work out the different populations of stable Germanium isotopes in it. I'm trying to model the unrealistic scenario where none of these isotopes ...
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1answer
564 views

Why can't electrons be found inside the nucleus if there are infinite number of orbitals?

If there are an infinite number of orbitals, we can assume, that they can be present in any point in space. If that is correct, why do we not find electrons in the nucleus? I study in high school. ...
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1answer
32 views

Notation on chart of the isotopes

I recently purchased a complete chart of the isotopes, (this one: https://shop.marktdienste.de/shoppages/produktuebersicht.aspx ) and have it on the wall next to me in work. The different coloured ...
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2answers
80 views

System of Units where Coulomb's constant $k_e = 1$?

I am reading (and trying to replicate the results of) a paper in the field of condensed matter physics. The system consists of a spatially separated electron and hole whose Coulomb interaction is the ...
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2answers
56 views

What is the relation between energy levels of hydrogen atom in Bohr's solution to that of Dirac solution

In Dirac solution for hydrogen atom, the energy levels are calculated as positive \begin{equation} ...
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1answer
244 views

How to find the constants in Moseley's law?

Recentely we were discussing / learning Moseley's law in class. We have successfully constructed the most basic version of it: $$f=f_R*(Z-1)^2*(1-\frac{1}{n^2})$$ with $n$ being the main quantum ...
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2answers
116 views

How massive can an atom get?

After reading this thread, it appears to me that creating a new element is a game of chance some sort of an art. It also appeared to me that the higher you go, the harder it is to make an element. ...
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1answer
80 views

I don't understand the spectrum of elements e.g. hydrogen spectrum [closed]

Quote from my textbook The hydrogen spectrum has spectral lines which correspond to transitions of the electron between energy levels. This statement implies that hydrogen has multiple electron ...
2
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1answer
68 views

Do antiparticles exhibit different chemical properties?

In my physics class today. My teacher mentioned anti-helium and since I had never heard of anti-atoms (if you get what I mean by that) just antiparticles, this made me think: If we could produce ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Doubly magic isotopes

I understand the definition of a magic number in nuclear physics to mean a number of either protons or neutrons to completely fill a nuclear shell. I see here the term "doubly magic" used for 78Ni: ...
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0answers
56 views

Can a molecule be ionized by absorbing the energy of more than 1 photon?

I'm wondering if a molecule can absorb more then 1 photon before releasing a photon. The reason I'm asking is I would like to ionize a molecule with light but the frequency of light this molecule ...
0
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1answer
106 views

Does the charge of an atom or molecule change after absorbing a photon

I know atoms or molecules will absorb a photon of the right frequency but will this change the charge. If you have a neutral molecule once it absorbs a photon will the charge change to a positive or ...
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2answers
261 views

Why does the conjugated $\pi$ bond not violate the Pauli Exclusion Principle?

Let's look at the molecule 1,3 butadiene: $CH_2=CH-CH=CH_2$ and number the carbon atoms 1 to 4 from left to right. The bonds between 1 and 2 and between 3 and 4 are double bonds: each ...
2
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1answer
401 views

Gamma spectroscopy - Table of radioactive isotopes with gamma energy search

For anyone doing gamma spectroscopy by hand, the task is considerably eased by tables like this: http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/toi/ Where not only can you search for particular nuclides, but you ...
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1answer
99 views

What is the different between a dark state and a ground state?

In a atomic quantum system, typically discussing in quantum optics, there is something called dark state. A dark state is a state of a quantum system that does not emit any photon. A ground state also ...
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49 views

Gamma spectroscopy – What is this structure?

What is this strange structure in the gamma spectrum between 450 and 550 keV (below) around the peak at 477 keV? The spectrum seems to rise to a plateau (almost like a small Compton plateau) around ...
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1answer
71 views

Length of time interval for an atom in excited state to drop to lower energy level [duplicate]

This is either a basic question or one that doesn't make any sense, but here goes. If I have an atom in an excited state (1st energy level or 2nd or more), how long does it take to drop to a lower ...
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47 views

Coincidence summing in gamma spectrum

Question on coincidence summing here. I've been reading about the coincidence summing effect when a radionuclide has two energy levels that decay to another state in rapid succession. There is also ...