# Tagged Questions

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### How does An Electric Field Create a Dipole Moment of a Rydberg Atom?

I know that an Rydberg Atom will not usually have a Dipole Moment - as the positive nucleus are surrounded by a negative electron cloud, so there is no uneven charge distribution. However, I also ...
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### Where can I find a list of approximate excitation energies?

I would like to know the excitation energies for the known states of various nuclides. Is there a list somewhere that has this documented? I can't seem to find them easily for many nuclides. Maybe I ...
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### Excitation probability given pulse bandwidth and atom linewidth

Consider photon source producing photon pulses with a frequency distribution $f(\omega)$ and a glass tube filled with a gas. The atoms of the gas can be excited by photons with a frequency of ...
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### Photon absorption by a hydrogen atom : [duplicate]

How does the photon absorption takes place in a hydrogen? The classical mechanics shows the absorption of photonic energy resulting in the excitation of atom. Intuitively, a photon with frequency ...
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### Can all energetic photon excite an electron?

Consider a hydrogen atom, to excite the electron to a higher orbit, it should interact with photons of energy equal to that of the energy difference between the two states. If the energy of photon is ...
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### How large can an atom get? What's the farthest an electron can be from its nucleus?

For example, would it be possible to excite a hydrogen atom so that it's the size of a tennis ball? I'm thinking the electron would break free at some point, or it just gets practically harder to keep ...
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### Do electrons “check in” at the quantized energy radius before they leap?

Quantum jumps inside atoms always have the same energy, at least in a hydrogen atom when jumping from $n=1$ to $n=2$, like from a 1s1 to a 2s1 state. My question is, if an electron can be anywhere in ...
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### How can we tell if a molecule is in thermodynamic equilibrium from scattering data?

We have a molecule that is emitting/absorbing photons. We know the Hamiltonian and that there are several levels. We count the emitted photons at different angles and frequencies. We can also do ...
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### How does the electron jump across “gaps” in its orbital?

I saw on perhaps COSMOS, and have heard mention from other professors, that electrons sort of "teleport" or something, in their orbital and the quantum level. So looking at the orbitals for a lone ...
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### Entropy of an oscillator in Einstein's solid

This is a homework problem and I need help with it. A solid's (Einstein's model) oscillators are in the first excited state on average. How much entropy does one oscillator have? What I've tried so ...
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### Wigner Threshold law in Photodetachment and Photoionization

I am writing this question here because I have a problem in understanding the Wigner Threshold law in Photodetachment and Photoionization. The Wigner Threshold Law is given by: $\sigma$=$E^{L+1/2}$. ...
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### How does exciting an electron's surrounding electromagnetic field cause 'electron excitation'?

In more meaningful words than the ones above, how does adding energy to the EM field cause the electron to to change orbitals or oscillate in a different pattern.
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### Maintaining local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in radiating gas with a broad atomic transition line

Definitions / Background In LTE, Kirchoff's law for radiation holds: $$\frac{j_{\nu}}{\alpha_{\nu}} = B_{\nu} (T)$$ where $j_{\nu}$ is the specific radiative emissivity, $\alpha_{\nu}$ is the ...
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### Spatial Resolution in Magnetocardiography

In the science paper called Development of an optical cardio-magnetometer by George Bison, it is mentioned that spatial resolution of 10-20mm is required for mapping MCG signal(page 52). What does the ...
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### What do Allowed and Forbidden transitions tell us about the properties of a photon?

What do Allowed and Forbidden transitions tell us about the properties of a photon? Allowed transitions have the change in angular momentum $\ell=1$, all the others are forbidden. But what does it ...
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### Lowest Frequency De-excitation problem

Before the formation of the molecule it is possible for the muonic hydrogen atom to be formed in an excited state and for radiation to be observed from a single transition to the ground state. ...
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### How do molecules bubble off a photon?

After being excited by a photon, an electron of a photoactive molecule jumps to a higher electronic state. When it relaxes, the molecule emits a photon (in simple terms). How is this photon ...
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### Relation between different quantum excitation energy, mass energy and kinetic energy

When a particle enters an excited state, the energy appears in its quantum wavefunction according to $E = h \nu$. Does the $E$ in this equation also include kinetic energy, and rest mass energy? ...