The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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Expression for Atmospheric Pressure with Altitude, including Tidal Forces

Is this simple to obtain? I've tried to modify the constant-gravity model to use the $GM/r^2$ form instead, but my result was shown to be wrong with some testing. Constant Gravity Model You can ...
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2answers
222 views

Why did they used to make the mill chimneys so tall?

Why did they used to make the mill chimneys so tall? This question was asked in an Engineering Interview at Cambridge University.
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48 views

If you were able to get rid of Hydrogen from a weather balloon as it were rising and expanding would the weather balloon rise further than usual?

I know that the weather balloon will eventually be stopped because of the atmosphere no longer being buoyant but would the balloon be able to go farther than it regularly would?
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334 views

For how long can we make an air balloon stay flying via remotely controlled heat system?

I wonder how a function $$f=f(h, m_{\mathrm empty}, V_{max}, T_{h}), $$ with the top height $h$, the empty mass $m$, the maximum volume $V_{max}$, and the temperature of the heater $T_{h}$ would look ...
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140 views

Diffusion of gases in the atmosphere

Suppose that the atmosphere is composed of 21% $O_2$ and 78% $Kr$ (instead of $N_2$). Since the density of $Kr$ is greater than the density of $O_2$, the lower atmosphere (where we live) should be ...
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40 views

How does the atmospheric UVB attenuation of terrestrial planets compare?

On Earth, UVB (280nm - 315nm or 320nm depending on the source) undergoes extensive attenuation through the atmosphere, when observed at the planet's surface, as illustrated below: Image source ...
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41 views

Adiabatic expansion in the atmosphere

When an air parcel rises and cools adiabatically, it is said that there is no heat transfer as work is done on the surrounding atmosphere as the parcel expands. The parcel loses internal energy and ...
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0answers
128 views

seemingly impossible query

While on an expedition to a lake, it was noticed that the wind speeds gusted violently in seemingly periodic wakes and the proposed explanation was Von Karman vortex shedding off of nearby mountains ...
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0answers
54 views

Special conditions at layer F2 ionosphere

I saw this graph about the electrons density in different altitudes and difference between night and day, the difference between the 2 electron densities (day and night) decreases till 300 Km (F2 ...
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34 views

Surface UV exposure with cooler star

If the sun's surface was ~ 4000K (and earth closer to compensate), the UV component of the radiation would be less. However, UV makes ozone via photolysis of oxygen. Also, the stratosphere would ...
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0answers
119 views

How far we can see in the thickest possible fog?

There is quite foggy day today here, I cannot see end of the street. This made me think about how much worse can it be. So here is my question: how thick a fog can be? What's the smallest visibility ...
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0answers
55 views

Why does the airflow in the mid-stratosphere of the northern hemisphere rotate FASTER than the earth?

I have been playing around with this nice visualisation and noticed that in the mid-stratosphere (P=10hPa), the airflow around the equator and south of it is in the opposite direction to the earth's ...
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70 views

Mathematical approaches to atmospheric refraction

Understanding atmospheric refraction, particularly of ultraviolet, and into the blue part of the visible spectrum is of great interest to me. Although, I have a strong background in trigonometry and ...
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0answers
91 views

How Temperature, Pressure and Altitude are related in the atmosphere?

I'm looking for an approximation for the temperature of the atmosphere at any height and pressure. Both altitude and pressure are known variables, I've derived this equation using maxwell's ...
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0answers
28 views

What is the mean ionospheric height?

I am reading some articles about the ionosphere and I am a little bit confused about the terms mean ionospheric height and effective height of the ionosphere. Are these the same thing? I would ...
2
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0answers
96 views

If a hot Jupiter was not tidally locked, then are there any specific cases where its wind speeds would be milder than those found on Jupiter?

If a hot Jupiter was not tidally locked, are there any specific cases where its wind speeds would be milder than those found on Jupiter? After controlling for the age of the hot Jupiter, of course. ...
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0answers
12 views

Global Circulation Model of tidally locked planets for PC?

Is there some free simple Global Circulation Model that can handle tidally locked planets and can be easily compiled and used on a PC computer? It does not have to be very precise, I am interested ...
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0answers
30 views

Atmosphere: what is stratification?

Talking about atmosphere's stability, what does it mean that stratification is stable or unstable? What is stratification, exactly?
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29 views

Which is the most accurate way to model the fundamental atmospheric parameters of the Earth?

I need to calculate the fundamental atmospheric parameters, I mean the actual ones, this is not an exercise but a model for a real world application so I need to take account of the humidity of air. I ...
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0answers
48 views

What kinds of reactions happen when bubbling air through water?

Mostly I have seen air bubbling used to remove impurities in the water itself, like exemplified in this course packet. This is called "Sparging," but I have yet to learn much about transfer between ...
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0answers
105 views

virtual air-surface temperature difference above a water body

I'm trying to work through the equations for the following paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2009JD012839/abstract and am trying to understand the concept of virtual air temperature, ...
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0answers
22 views

how to find whether molecules will absorb radiation of a particular wavelength or not?

I am trying to understand vertical temperature profile of Earth's atmosphere. We know that different frequencies get absorbed by molecules at certain heights. I want to show this mathematically. For ...
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0answers
25 views

Variance of daylight over short periods of time?

I've searched various publication archives but I'm a signal processing engineer and not an applied physicist, so I might not be using the right terms. While I can find various average values for the ...
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0answers
31 views

Help with vacuums?

Okay, here is my understanding. Please correct me if anything here is incorrect. Suppose I have a cube with a side length of ten inches. It has a surface area of 600 square inches, and at an ...
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23 views

Detailed balance formulation in solar cells?

Hello I wanted to know where does the integral of following picture come from and what are the alternatives in it? How and where can i find information i need to know to understand this text? thank ...