The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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What is the equation for plotting a graph for absorption in air as a function of wavelength(7.5micrometer-13micrometer)? [on hold]

What is the equation for plotting a graph for "Absorption in air as a function of wavelength(7.5micrometer-13micrometer)"?
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4answers
563 views

How Earth protected from the gamma rays generated by Sun?

Sun is generating energy by nuclear fusion. And nuclear fusion will emit energy in the form of gamma rays. Normally earth's ozone filtering the Ultraviolet radiation. And magnetic fields of earth ...
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how to find whether molecules will absorb radiation of a particular wavelength or not?

I am trying to understand vertical temperature profile of Earth's atmosphere. We know that different frequencies get absorbed by molecules at certain heights. I want to show this mathematically. For ...
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1answer
214 views

What is the critical mass of a planet to have an atmosphere like Earth's? [on hold]

Small planets/orbits like Moon cannot have atmosphere because of their masses. They don't have enough gravity to hold an atmosphere. Then what is the critical mass that makes enough gravity to keep an ...
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1answer
29 views

Why do tires need to be inflated when the temperature changes?

Why do you need to add air to your tires when the temperature drops? The temperature inside and outside of the tire is the same (let's assume that you aren't currently driving, and your car has been ...
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1answer
48 views

If you were able to get rid of Hydrogen from a weather balloon as it were rising and expanding would the weather balloon rise further than usual?

I know that the weather balloon will eventually be stopped because of the atmosphere no longer being buoyant but would the balloon be able to go farther than it regularly would?
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Global Circulation Model of tidally locked planets for PC?

Is there some free simple Global Circulation Model that can handle tidally locked planets and can be easily compiled and used on a PC computer? It does not have to be very precise, I am interested ...
2
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96 views

If a hot Jupiter was not tidally locked, then are there any specific cases where its wind speeds would be milder than those found on Jupiter?

If a hot Jupiter was not tidally locked, are there any specific cases where its wind speeds would be milder than those found on Jupiter? After controlling for the age of the hot Jupiter, of course. ...
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2answers
46 views

Does the gravitational acceleration change value with height?

My prof asked me to do a graphic of a given function and I have to just to vary the gravitational acceleration $g$ and the height $H$. If I know the interval in which $H$ is defined :$[500,2000]m$, ...
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2answers
100 views

Expression for Atmospheric Pressure with Altitude, including Tidal Forces

Is this simple to obtain? I've tried to modify the constant-gravity model to use the $GM/r^2$ form instead, but my result was shown to be wrong with some testing. Constant Gravity Model You can ...
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3answers
62 views

Why does the air pressure at the surface of the earth exactly equal the weight of the entire air column above it

Why does the air pressure at the surface of the earth (resulting from collisions of molecules on the surface of the earth which has to do with the velocity of the particles) exactly equal the weight ...
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1answer
50 views

Atmospheric pressure's effect on sound

An argument has been travelling in amongst my friends around this matter and after listening about it for 3 whole days I decided to ask it here. The Question is: Would a high atmospheric pressure ...
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What is the difference between air pressure and atmospheric pressure?

I know that air pressure and temperature are inversely proportional. Now I saw in a book that "Atmospheric pressure decreases as we go higher and higher." But at greater heights the temperature ...
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5answers
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Why less temperature at high altitude

Why there is always cold at high altitudes. e.g. at peak of mountains. Also as we go high from sea level, temperature starts decreasing. Why is it?
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3answers
71 views

Why is the Moon not redder at moonrise/moonset?

Okay we all know about Raleigh Scattering, which makes the sky blue. And by the same token, sunsets appear red because sunlight traveling through more atmosphere will "lose more blueness" as it's ...
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2answers
1k views

If I shout at the sky, will some molecules reach escape velocity?

Will the sound waves, as they move higher and through less dense air, conserve energy to the point where some molecules of the rarified atmosphere attain escape velocity?
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1answer
30 views

Dry adiabatic lifting

If an unsaturated air parcel ascends adiabatically in the atmosphere with an initial temperature, would the final temperature of the air parcel, when it reaches it's destination, be the same at the ...
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0answers
30 views

Atmosphere: what is stratification?

Talking about atmosphere's stability, what does it mean that stratification is stable or unstable? What is stratification, exactly?
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1answer
350 views

Why some thunders sound deeper while others sound snappier?

Why does some thunder sound deeper and lower in pitch while others sound snappier and higher in pitch? I don't think there should be any difference between the lightnings and so the thunders sound be ...
2
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0answers
28 views

What is the mean ionospheric height?

I am reading some articles about the ionosphere and I am a little bit confused about the terms mean ionospheric height and effective height of the ionosphere. Are these the same thing? I would ...
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1answer
62 views

What is the reason of the semidiurnal pressure oscillation in the atmosphere?

It appears that in many (most) places on earth, a pressure oscillation of a 100-200 Pa takes place twice a day : that is, with maxima around 12AM and 12PM and minima around 6AM and 6PM. I've found ...
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2answers
24 views

Use of the ideal gas law for Earth's atmosphere and the role of density

To a good approximation the atmosphere behaves as an ideal gas, with each mole of gas obeying the law: $pV_m=RT$ We can obtain the corresponding law for unit mass of air using the density $\rho$. I ...
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2answers
62 views

Why Earth's atmosphere behaves like an ideal gas?

In every book I found this sentence like an assumption, without explananions, somebody can help me understand it better?
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4answers
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Why is the sky never green? It can be blue or orange, and green is in between!

I, like everybody I suppose, have read the explanations why the colour of the sky is blue: ... the two most common types of matter present in the atmosphere are gaseous nitrogen and oxygen. ...
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1answer
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How can similar lightning strikes produce thunder with different time durations?

Here in Florida, lightning happens quite often. On occasion, I have noticed that one bolt will discharge and its resultant boom will be very very short, and then a second later another bolt will ...
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1answer
18 views

Is there a known shape to the pattern of spherical expansion from the center outward?

I know that atomic bombs when exploded in or under or not too far above the ground, mushroom clouds are the shape that gets made by expansion, but it has the ground as a mirror, or whatever, depending ...
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1answer
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Final temperature of an air parcel

How would one find the final temperature of an air parcel ascending adiabatically in the atmosphere? Like which formula would you use? I used the equation of state for dry air to find the initial ...
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3answers
3k views

Why doesn't rain fall down in streams (as opposed to drops)

Why is it that raindrops don't collide and 'stick together' on their descent to Earth, arriving in streams rather than separate drops?
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2answers
92 views

Can someone explain to me the concept of atmosphere opacity?

On this diagram, why is the atmospheric opacity shaped as it is? If we are able to see lights due to low atmospheric opacity, why can't we see radio waves, when the atmospheric opacity is so low ...
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2answers
46 views

U.S. Standard Atmosphere

My textbook states that "Ideally, we would like to have measurements of pressure versus altitude over the specific range for the specific conditions (temperature, reference pressure) for which the ...
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2answers
94 views

Why do 2.4GHz frequencies offer greater range than 5GHz routers?

I would've thought that as 5GHz is a higher frequency, and it carries more energy, it would be able to pass through walls much more easily compared to a 2.4GHz frequency- similar to how short ...
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1answer
40 views

How come the atmosphere moves with Earth? [duplicate]

now, I have read a lot of explanations on that but still can't really understand why it would happen so if you can give some examples for a such a thing happening. I mean lets say gravity attracts the ...
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2answers
72 views

Stratospheric ship

Let's assume that we build a giant steel hull in a shape of cube with open top (2km long edge) and lift it to the top of stratosphere and then pump air out of it. Would it float on the outer layer of ...
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4answers
31k views

Why does the road look like it's wet on hot days?

Often, I'll be driving down the road on a summer day, and as I look ahead toward the horizon, I notice that the road looks like there's a puddle of water on it, or that it was somehow wet. Of course, ...
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2answers
36 views

Function to fit solar radiation data

I have ground-level radiation data of solar incoming radiation from a radiometer (cosine collector) measured along the day. In the following plot you can see PAR irradiance (ie visible light) in Watts ...
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1answer
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Can refraction of the atmosphere be so high that the surface of a planet seems concave to its inhabitants?

In their novel Inhabited Island by brothers Strugatsky, the inhabitants of a planet think they live on the inner surface of a giant sphere because the refraction of the atmosphere makes the surface ...
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2answers
3k views

Why is the sun brighter in Australia compared to parts of Asia?

Background: I've lived in Philippines for several years, and visited other parts of Asia occasionally (Singapore, Indonesia, Hongkong). I just moved to Western Australia a few months ago and I ...
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2answers
198 views

Loopy lightning

What causes lightning to follow the path it does ? picture from BBC news: http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/62891000/jpg/_62891901_untitled-1copy.jpg main page: ...
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Which is the most accurate way to model the fundamental atmospheric parameters of the Earth?

I need to calculate the fundamental atmospheric parameters, I mean the actual ones, this is not an exercise but a model for a real world application so I need to take account of the humidity of air. I ...
11
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2answers
346 views

How are the northern lights produced?

Although I've never seen it myself, I hear the northern lights are a sight to be seen! I know they're related to the Earth's magnetic field but I don't know much more about them. What is the physical ...
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0answers
30 views

Cause and properties of northern lights [duplicate]

If outside on a dark night in the middle to high latitudes, one might be able to see an aurora. It may be several hundred kilometers high and several thousand kilometers long, stretching around Earth ...
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2answers
85 views

Do we hear sounds differently on the highest mountains?

Some searching gives that above 6,000 meter altitude the air density is less than half of that at sea level. Speed of sound is about 15-20% slower and "acoustic impedance" seems to change too. Do ...
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2answers
2k views

Ascent rate and size of balloon

I am part of a school project, Project Stratos to send a balloon to the edge of space (the closer side :P) and was wondering how you would work out the accent rate of a large balloon (roughly 1m^3 of ...
2
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4answers
534 views

Would the rate of ascent of an indestructible balloon increase as function of it's altitude?

Assume a balloon filled with Hydrogen, fitted with a perfect valve, and capable of enduring vacuum (that is to say, it would retain it's shape and so well insulated that the extremes of temperature at ...
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4answers
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How does carbon dioxide or water vapour absorb thermal infra red radiation from the sun?

We are all told at school water vapour and carbon dioxide are the top two greenhouse gases, and that they absorb thermal infra red radiation, trap heat and warm up the Earth. My question is how do ...
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2answers
55 views

How laminar or turbulent is air?

Consider an outdoors scenario, with good weather and no sensible air currents at the floor level. How turbulent or laminar is the air surrounding this environment?
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1answer
24 views

The atmosphere's water vapour capacity

If enough energy was supplied, could all liquid water on Earth evaporate into the atmosphere? Could the atmosphere hold this much water vapour? Would the pressure and density increase as a result?
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2answers
25 views

speed of gas molecules when they escape to space

I wonder if the escape velocity of gas molecules is the same as the one of rockets, which is 7.8km/s. And do oxygen escape at all or not? Are they too heavy?
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1answer
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How can I get average numbers of days wind flow from 16 direction? [closed]

Wind flow from North direction a nos. of days, Similarly from North East b nos. of days, East c nos. of days, South East d nos. of days, South e nos. of days, South West f nos. of days, West g nos. of ...
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1answer
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Determine the number of days with North-East wind direction from the number of days with North and East wind direction? [closed]

I have some data like: Wind flow from north direction = “X” Numbers of days. Wind flow from east direction = “Y” Numbers of days. Then is there any formula to know numbers of days wind flows ...