The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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Why formation of rain is adiabatic?

I recently went through the wikipedia page for Rain. It said that There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling,.... It proceeds as ...
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1answer
50 views

California “firenados”

There are spectacular rotating towers of fire that can be seen in recent television images of fire in California. In this video, we see that these fire towers can rotate either clockwise or counter ...
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83 views

Magnetic hot air balloon [duplicate]

Normally, hot air balloons are limited to 60,000 ft (related question), the limits being the mass of the physical structure containing the air, and the heat source. If one constructed a magnetic ...
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1answer
46 views

What is the height of different layers of the atmosphere?

I have a confusion regarding the height of different layers of atmosphere. I have searched for this in some books but the information varies.
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63 views

Does the ice melt faster when breaks free from larger sheet and drops into Antarctic Ocean waters?

My question is, when Ice is intact with the large sheet and exposed only to air, it melts at some pace. But does it melt faster or slower when the big piece breaks free from the sheet and drops into ...
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Why doesn't rain fall down in streams (as opposed to drops)

Why is it that raindrops don't collide and 'stick together' on their descent to Earth, arriving in streams rather than separate drops?
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Adiabatic expansion in the atmosphere

When an air parcel rises and cools adiabatically, it is said that there is no heat transfer as work is done on the surrounding atmosphere as the parcel expands. The parcel loses internal energy and ...
3
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1answer
354 views

Would atmosphere of Jupiter blow up if I launched a atomic bomb there? [duplicate]

This is based upon an question I had, since in Jupiter there is no oxygen a simple fire cannot be started let alone even happen due to its temperature. Anyway that being said, If I somehow used a ...
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9answers
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Why can't we see gases?

I am not sure what causes gas molecules to be invisible.This question may look silly but I really want to know the story behind it.
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35 views

Is it possible to more cloud-layers go to different ways on the sky

Sometime when I see the sky I see that the cloud-layers go to different ways. But how is it possible?
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If I were standing on the surface of the sun, how far could I see?

Assuming it would be possible to handle the intense heat... Is the surface even? If not, would average surface elevation be an appropriate definition of "surface"?Does the sun have an atmosphere that ...
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1answer
53 views

Effect of CO2 on the environment, besides greenhouse effect and ocean acidification [closed]

What effects does the raising level of CO2 in the atmosphere have, besides being a greenhouse gas and responsible for the increased acidity of the oceans? What other environmental damages does it ...
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2answers
258 views

Why do clouds fly? [duplicate]

I know it's probably the most stupid question there is, but why do they fly are the clouds lighter than air? What's keeping those tiny ice structures floating miles about the ground? I've been looking ...
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3answers
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Do hail stone fall down just when it is created?

Density of ice is much higher than air. Then how can hail stone remain in earth atmosphere before they fall down ?
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72 views

Stratospheric ship

Let's assume that we build a giant steel hull in a shape of cube with open top (2km long edge) and lift it to the top of stratosphere and then pump air out of it. Would it float on the outer layer of ...
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1answer
58 views

Gases at different pressures reaching uniform pressure

First of all, sorry if my question is dumb, I have very little understanding of physics. Also, English is not my native language. If two gases, initially with different pressures, are mixed in a ...
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0answers
27 views

How does atmospheric pressure work? [duplicate]

I heard that yesterday the atmospheric pressure at my location was exceptionally higher than normal and that explained why I had such a terrible headache all day. But what remained unclear was... How ...
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0answers
29 views

Breatheability of atmosphere above 3000 meters [closed]

I would like to offer you a slight correction on your statement that 3000 m is about the limit of breathable atmosphere. Unless I misunderstood you, I need to point out that many people live in ...
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1answer
238 views

Where is the atmospheric pressure equal to zero?

Consider the following question. My calculation is as follows. \begin{align*} P_C = P_A + \rho g h\\ P_A = P_C - \rho g h \end{align*} Because $P_C=P_0=\rho g h$ then $P_A=0$. Is it correct that ...
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4answers
98 views

Bulk flow of air in a long tube between Antarctica and Australia?

I have a 5km diameter clear plastic tube which is open at each end and runs from the center of Antarctica to Lake Eyre in Australia. The tube is on the ground where it can be and at sea level on the ...
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0answers
23 views

Detailed balance formulation in solar cells?

Hello I wanted to know where does the integral of following picture come from and what are the alternatives in it? How and where can i find information i need to know to understand this text? thank ...
3
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1answer
176 views

Why does the Sun turn red near sunset?

At daytime the Sun's light is yellowish if not near white. Why when the Sun starts to go down that it's light turn more red. I don't think the earth's rotation is so rapid to cause a red shift. Why ...
8
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1answer
73 views

Do we have 2 minutes of extra morning?

my physics teacher told me about the refraction and its applications one of them was 2 minutes of early sunrise and after she explained this effect she concluded that days are 2 minutes longer than ...
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1answer
133 views

Can atmospheric pressure literally push electromagnetic waves?

I work for an IT company and some time ago we had an issue with our wireless internet. We are 5 miles away from the ISP's antenna. Our Sys Admin expressed the view that the electromagnetic waves are ...
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0answers
120 views

How far we can see in the thickest possible fog?

There is quite foggy day today here, I cannot see end of the street. This made me think about how much worse can it be. So here is my question: how thick a fog can be? What's the smallest visibility ...
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2answers
85 views

Why do the terrestrial planets have many of the same gases in their atmospheres?

While the gases are present in very different abundances, and the atmospheres have very different pressures, Earth, Mars and Venus all have a similar cast of gases: nitrogen, argon, CO2, others in ...
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1answer
120 views

How can I estimate confidence intervals around the forecasted temperatures for future days?

Weather.com will happily give me temperature predictions for the next ten days, but no indication of how reliable those predictions are. So if I want to plan something for a week from today, or four ...
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2answers
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How about retrodiction, if climate prediction is difficult?

What I mean by the question is if retrodiction has been attempted back to, say, 50 or 100 years starting with the presently known state of climate as initial conditions using the same equations and ...
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4answers
554 views

Can a small change in the Earth temperature give rise to large-scale climate changes?

Earth's atmosphere is a chaotic system. In such systems arbitrarily small changes the conditions can give rise to very large effects. There are many rumors about the physical and large scale ...
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1answer
91 views

What physical phenomena underly the shape of this graph of diurnal UV index?

When I dig up a graphs of UV index versus time-of-day, most graphs are characteristically shaped like one of the plots shown here: That graph is from this site. What physical phenomena underly ...
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1answer
168 views

What is the current physical theory of what causes the 'Morning Glory' roll cloud over Northern Australia?

The Morning Glory roll cloud (pictured below): from this Wikipedia page, which briefly describes the landform and meteorological causes, but states The Morning Glory cloud is not clearly ...
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0answers
55 views

Why does the airflow in the mid-stratosphere of the northern hemisphere rotate FASTER than the earth?

I have been playing around with this nice visualisation and noticed that in the mid-stratosphere (P=10hPa), the airflow around the equator and south of it is in the opposite direction to the earth's ...
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How does the atmospheric UVB attenuation of terrestrial planets compare?

On Earth, UVB (280nm - 315nm or 320nm depending on the source) undergoes extensive attenuation through the atmosphere, when observed at the planet's surface, as illustrated below: Image source ...
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Mathematical approaches to atmospheric refraction

Understanding atmospheric refraction, particularly of ultraviolet, and into the blue part of the visible spectrum is of great interest to me. Although, I have a strong background in trigonometry and ...
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2answers
230 views

Why did they used to make the mill chimneys so tall?

Why did they used to make the mill chimneys so tall? This question was asked in an Engineering Interview at Cambridge University.
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What weathering mechanism leads to reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere?

Wikipedia says: The global temperature of the Earth will climb because of the rising luminosity of the Sun, the rate of weathering of silicate minerals will increase. This in turn will decrease ...
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2answers
79 views

Relative velocity decomposition

In my fluid dynamics course notes is stated a change in relative velocity can be decomposed: $$\delta \mathbf{v} = \left\{ \begin{pmatrix} \Delta & 0 \\ 0 & \Delta \end{pmatrix} + ...
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1answer
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Physical interpretation of the Lorenz system

The Lorenz equations $$ \frac{dx}{dt} = \sigma(y-x);\\ \frac{dy}{dt} = x(\rho-z)-y;\\ \frac{dz}{dt} = xy - \beta z $$ were (I believe) the first set of nonlinear equations known to exhibit chaotic ...
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0answers
47 views

What are the physics challenges of rain farming [closed]

Rain farming is an engineering concept, employing the technology of industrial cooling towers, to deliver vast amounts of water to the lower levels of the troposphere as warm moist air. This question ...
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1answer
464 views

Causes of hexagonal shape of Saturn's jet stream

NASA has just shown a more detailed picture of the hexagonal vortex/storm on Saturn: http://www.ibtimes.com/nasa-releases-images-saturns-hexagon-mega-storm-may-have-been-swirling-centuries-1496218 ...
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2answers
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Expression for Atmospheric Pressure with Altitude, including Tidal Forces

Is this simple to obtain? I've tried to modify the constant-gravity model to use the $GM/r^2$ form instead, but my result was shown to be wrong with some testing. Constant Gravity Model You can ...
5
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1answer
98 views

Predominant light frequency over the day?

I'm not well-versed in physics, so I hope you'll forgive me if this question is significantly off the mark. I'm interested in the predominant frequencies of light over the course of one day. My ...
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1answer
121 views

'Hole in the clouds' in the Sarychev Peak eruption

One of my favourite ever pictures taken from space is a picture of the 2009 eruption of Sarychev Peak (Ostrov Matua island, Japan) taken by an ISS astronaut during a lucky fly-over. Image Source: ...
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0answers
92 views

How Temperature, Pressure and Altitude are related in the atmosphere?

I'm looking for an approximation for the temperature of the atmosphere at any height and pressure. Both altitude and pressure are known variables, I've derived this equation using maxwell's ...
2
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1answer
86 views

Whirlwind/tornado/dust devil in the middle of nowhere

I live in area which have many properties similar to desert. Many times when I drive by I see a whirlwind/tornado/dust devil of sand or other garbage parts. I would like to ask how this was normally ...
6
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4answers
2k views

Does the moon affect the Earth's climate?

So, this morning I was talking to a friend about astronomical observations, and he told me that lately there has only been good weather when there was a full moon in the sky, which was a shame. I ...
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0answers
28 views

What is the mean ionospheric height?

I am reading some articles about the ionosphere and I am a little bit confused about the terms mean ionospheric height and effective height of the ionosphere. Are these the same thing? I would ...
2
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2answers
150 views

Cloud Microphysics - Does It contain Ice Or Water Or Both?

I'm not sure if this is the right site to post this on but I have a project where I have some cloud microphysical properties: ...
8
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1answer
62 views

What is the reason of the semidiurnal pressure oscillation in the atmosphere?

It appears that in many (most) places on earth, a pressure oscillation of a 100-200 Pa takes place twice a day : that is, with maxima around 12AM and 12PM and minima around 6AM and 6PM. I've found ...
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1answer
79 views

What confines atmosphere around earth?

Exactly the title. There needs to be a pressure to prevent gases from perpetually expanding, right? Bear with me, I'm not a physicist or studying to be one.