The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets.

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97 views

What is the necessary amount of energy to propel a 100g from ground to orbit ? (Slingatron)

I would like to know what is the energy needed considering the air resistance to shoot from ground to the orbit a 100g object (even if it vaporizes in the process). Variables to make approx ...
5
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1answer
166 views

Weather forecasting with coffee bubbles

The other day I saw this life-hack: And I was wondering how true it is. First of all, I always thought(listening to weather forecasts) that low-pressure atmosphere is what correlates with rain; ...
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1answer
201 views

What's the altitude of the flat base of Cumulus clouds?

Is there a formula that describes the altitude of clouds with respect to the local temperature? I think of the flat bases of Cumulus clouds. Thanks...
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2answers
2k views

What is the difference between air pressure and atmospheric pressure? [closed]

I remember studying that air pressure and temperature are inversely proportional. Now I saw in book that "Atmospheric pressure decreases as we go higher and higher." But in height the temperature ...
4
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1answer
105 views

Why can spacecraft observe terrestrial gamma rays, but terrestrial observers not observe extraterrestrial galactic rays?

For the observation of solar or galactic gamma rays, one should ideally be above the atmosphere. Quoting the Wikipedia article on Gamma-ray astronomy: Most gamma rays coming from space are ...
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3answers
208 views

Why does the wind direction vary locally?

If the air is flowing with the earth, as it rotates, how do we feel a breeze and strong winds at times, as everyone has experienced, the wind shifts as if from many directions.
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0answers
47 views

Why stars twinkle but planets don't? [duplicate]

I am not from a physics background. I came to know this while studying probability? Is this because the planets are nearer than the stars so we get average behaviour rather than random. Is law of ...
3
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0answers
115 views

seemingly impossible query

While on an expedition to a lake, it was noticed that the wind speeds gusted violently in seemingly periodic wakes and the proposed explanation was Von Karman vortex shedding off of nearby mountains ...
4
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1answer
112 views

Do asteroids create sonic boom while entering the atmosphere?

Because of the lack of any materials to propagate sound, it can't spread in space. There's the air in the atmosphere, but its volume mass increases constantly (either linear or exponential, I don't ...
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2answers
2k views

In an ideal gas, if temperature increases, will pressure or volume increase?

This question came up when I was talking about the atmosphere. Someone had mistakenly claimed that as temperature increases, the density of the atmosphere should increase as well. I reasoned from the ...
7
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2answers
283 views

Why is getting a tan in the evening less likely than getting a tan in the morning?

When I was young I read one book in which is written that you get more tan on the morning than on evening even light angle from Sun to Earth is the same. Don't remember exact reason, I think because ...
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2answers
204 views

Why do clouds form in lumps?

What forces drive the water vapor to form the shapes every child draws? Why isn't water vapor forming an uniform mist layer consistently (which it some times does)? I have two general ideas how this ...
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2answers
83 views

Local real-time lightning tracker site?

Is there a site that tracks lightning strikes at a local level in real-time? Google results for "lightning tracker" yield several sites, but none do this. It seems easy enough to set up. Have ...
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1answer
60 views

Rate of twinkling of stars

According to "Why do stars flicker?", the twinkling of stars (stellar scintillation) is caused by the thick layers of turbulent air in the Earth's atmosphere. While the explanation is convincing, it ...
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1answer
2k views

How do you calculate vortex shedding frequency?

I am attempting to try to find out if there is any effect of Von Karman vortices on a group of wind speed readings where it is presumed that due to a mountain nearby the data collection spot Von ...
6
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0answers
122 views

Diffusion of gases in the atmosphere

Suppose that the atmosphere is composed of 21% $O_2$ and 78% $Kr$ (instead of $N_2$). Since the density of $Kr$ is greater than the density of $O_2$, the lower atmosphere (where we live) should be ...
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1answer
235 views

Where in the atmosphere is the blue light scattered?

I have searched Wikpedia and the Physics Stack Exchange archieves, and I cannot find the answer to these two related questions. If it is, please guide me to where this information is located. If ...
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1answer
76 views

vertical wind gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer

I'm reading the following paper: Intercomparison of Bulk Aerodynamic Algorithms for the Computation of Sea Surface Fluxes Using TOGA COARE and TAO Data and am having trouble working through ...
6
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1answer
189 views

Is this a Fata Morgana?

I took this photo. Above the horizon there is a thick layer that looks like a cloud, but it surely isn't. Is this a Fata Morgana? What do you think? EDIT: I think the more appropriate name is ...
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2answers
99 views

What processes occur when a meteor enters the atmosphere?

What processes occur when a meteor enters earth's atmosphere and then what will be speed of meteor when it encounters air resistance?
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0answers
92 views

virtual air-surface temperature difference above a water body

I'm trying to work through the equations for the following paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2009JD012839/abstract and am trying to understand the concept of virtual air temperature, ...
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3answers
2k views

Atmospheric pressure experiment using a cup with a fluid to hold a glass plate

When I was in high school, my teacher did an experiment to show the power of atmospheric pressure. Experiment: Prepare a glass bottle, fill with water, put a glass plate on the bottle, make sure ...
8
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3answers
655 views

How is it that the Earth's atmosphere is not “blown away”?

The Earth moves at a high rate of speed around the Sun, and the solar system is moving quickly around the Milky Way. How is it that the Earth's atmosphere is not “blown away”?
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2answers
530 views

Is the total mass of Earth's atmosphere essentially constant in time?

Per a few questions and comments on this site such as Huge buildings affect earth's rotation? I wonder, is the mass of the Earth's atmosphere roughly constant? We're burning an incredible amount ...
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2answers
98 views

Penetration of light in the atmosphere

While I was considering an answer to this question, I wondered how much light that enters the atmosphere reaches the ground without colliding with air molecules—if any. I've taken a good bit of ...
2
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1answer
102 views

Has martian sunset same spectra than this earthly bluish-violet sunset?

Has martian sunset same spectra than this earthly bluish-violet sunset? What about sunset on Mercury?
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3answers
272 views

How can anything be hotter than the Sun?

I've heard that if a space shuttle enters the atmosphere from a bad angle its surface will become so hot that it will be hotter than the surface of the Sun. How can that be? It seems to an uneducated ...
4
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2answers
194 views

Attenuation mass-thickness for sunset light

We are able to look directly at the sun near sunset and sunrise, which clearly demonstrates the fact that our atmosphere attenuates visible light. Let's imagine it follows the typical attenuation ...
4
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1answer
288 views

Can a hovering helicopter travel half the globe in 12 hours? [duplicate]

Suppose we have a helicopter that is able to stay stationary in flight for extended periods of time. If such a helicopter stayed at point A in the sky for 12 hours straight, would it reach the other ...
2
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1answer
167 views

What if Felix Baumgartner went the other way?

How much harder would it have been for Felix to use some powered sled and head for the ISS when he stepped out of his capsule? He was already above most of the atmosphere. BTW, Is that capsule still ...
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2answers
606 views

Is it possible to calculate atmospheric pressure if given temperature (F) and elevation?

I am working on a report at work and need to determine the atmospheric pressure for small intervals over a 24 hour period. Searching Google, I've found charts which give a base pressure of 14.65 psia ...
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3answers
595 views

Can low-gravity planets sustain a breathable atmosphere?

If astronauts could deliver a large quantity of breathable air to somewhere with lower gravity, such as Earth's moon, would the air form an atmosphere, or would it float away and disappear? Is there a ...
2
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1answer
94 views

Sensors for Greenhouse Study

A group and I have the opportunity to design a payload that will be sent up some 100,000 ft (~ 30 km) into the atmosphere for approximately 3 hours. In our design, we were going to include gas sensors ...
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1answer
128 views

Equations for the two-plane model of the greenhouse effect

I'm trying to understand this "toy model" of the greenhouse effect. http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2007/04/learning-from-a-simple-model The model predicts the surface temperature of ...
3
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0answers
50 views

Special conditions at layer F2 ionosphere

I saw this graph about the electrons density in different altitudes and difference between night and day, the difference between the 2 electron densities (day and night) decreases till 300 Km (F2 ...
2
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1answer
79 views

Term for “atmospheric ricochet” due to wrong “angle-of-attack”

I watched "Apollo 13" yesterday, and they had the "angle-of-attack" problem that had to be manually solved, to prevent the ship from "ricochet[ing] off the atmosphere like a rock skipping off a pond". ...
2
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1answer
337 views

What is the cause of orange sky glow?

I live in the Netherlands and recently I have been seeing an orange glow in the sky at night, in the northwestern direction. What is the cause of this? And why is it in the northwestern direction (I ...
3
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0answers
33 views

Surface UV exposure with cooler star

If the sun's surface was ~ 4000K (and earth closer to compensate), the UV component of the radiation would be less. However, UV makes ozone via photolysis of oxygen. Also, the stratosphere would ...
6
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1answer
163 views

Atmospheric Circulation

What is the simplest simulatable model giving our rotating earth its 3 circulation cells (Hadley, Ferrel, Polar)? The model should also show 1 circulation cell if the earth's rotation were stopped (or ...
2
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1answer
80 views

Need to write a function that computes the UV index

I have found a lot of people talking about how to compute the UV index, but have not found an example that shows the actual equations, so I could adapt them into an algorithm. Probably the closest ...
2
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2answers
343 views

Minimum size of an asteroid to actually impact earth

From what I understand, an object entering the atmosphere will start to burn up from the tremendous resistance of the atmosphere. Presumably, for asteroids under a certain size, they will burn up ...
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1answer
120 views

Is the Earth's atmosphere a Faraday cage?

X-ray telescopes are required to be above the atmosphere as the atmosphere blocks EM waves with wavelengths < UV . Does this mean that the Earth's atmosphere can be thought of as a Faraday cage ...
17
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4answers
276 views

Why is lightning more rare during snow storms than rain storms?

Lightning and thunder during a snow storm is uncommon. As far as I know, more uncommon than during a typical rain storm. Why is this? I speculate it might be one, or both, of the following two ...
10
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2answers
457 views

Energy from man-made tornadoes

Peter Thiel just paid $300,000 to Canadian inventor Louis Michaud who is working to construct useful "man-made tornadoes" or "atmospheric vortex engines" which could be components of future power ...
15
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2answers
445 views

How deep is the Great Red Spot?

The Great Red Spot (GRS) is a very persistent storm system that's easily visible through a telescope on the surface of Jupiter. But what is the three-dimensional structure of the GRS, and how deep ...
2
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0answers
147 views

What is the critical mass of a planet to have an atmosphere like Earth's?

Small planets/orbits like Moon cannot have atmosphere because of their masses. They don't have enough gravity to hold an atmosphere. Then what is the critical mass that makes enough gravity to keep an ...
5
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1answer
909 views

Why does the sun “shine brighter” some days?

Today, the sun seems extremely bright; more dazzling than usual, and even the roads seem to be brighter so it's not just when you look up in the sky. Is more light actually getting through (perhaps ...
9
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1answer
358 views

What causes a ring-like image around light of the moon?

I just encountered an interesting image in sky. As you can see in following images there was a ring-like image around light of the moon. I don't know if it was clouds but it was looking like it is far ...
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1answer
123 views

What caused Simon Faithfull's chair to fall appart?

There is an art/science video clip on youtube, by Simon Faithful, called Escape Vehicle no.6 (chair in space). It shows a simple steel office chair, tied to a weather balloon, ascending into the upper ...
3
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1answer
82 views

image distortion when taking a picture from space

I'm trying to understand if there is a distortion of an image taken from space (i.e. from a satellite), and if there is, then how to model it mathematically (depending on the angle in which we take ...