The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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Atmospheric pressure below sea level

If I go up in the air the amount of oxygen decrease and the atmospheric pressure gets lower. What would happen if i dig a hole 100 km down? does atmospheric pressure go up? when is the pressure so ...
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2answers
611 views

Energy from man-made tornadoes

Peter Thiel just paid $300,000 to Canadian inventor Louis Michaud who is working to construct useful "man-made tornadoes" or "atmospheric vortex engines" which could be components of future power ...
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5answers
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How does carbon dioxide or water vapour absorb thermal infra red radiation from the sun?

We are all told at school water vapour and carbon dioxide are the top two greenhouse gases, and that they absorb thermal infra red radiation, trap heat and warm up the Earth. My question is how do ...
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1answer
143 views

What colour would the sky of a high-oxygen, high-argon, high-water vapour atmosphere be?

Although this is a hypothetical, I think it is nevertheless a legitimate physics problem. I would very much appreciate any answers you can give. What colour would the sky be, both at daytime and at ...
2
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1answer
62 views

Atmospheric pressure of Venus?

I have seen the calculations on the atmospheric pressure of Venus - 90 times that of earth. With gravity very similar to earth, how does Venus do that. The calculations I have seen assume constant ...
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3answers
2k views

What determines the apparent radius of the rainbow?

Let's say I know how to compute the apparent radius of a rainbow from the viewpoint of the observer: take a photo of the scene, measure the distance to a known reference object, and its dimensions. ...
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2answers
1k views

Do asteroids create sonic boom while entering the atmosphere?

Because of the lack of any materials to propagate sound, it can't spread in space. There's the air in the atmosphere, but its volume mass increases constantly (either linear or exponential, I don't ...
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1answer
66 views

What is this optical phenomenon, as looked from outer space? [duplicate]

I just saw a photo from NASA. This is it. This is beautiful. But i am not being able to understand, what are those red and green lines above the earth surface? These cannot be due to Rayleigh ...
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3answers
137 views

Rayleigh equation as explanation for sky being blue

I've been reading up on the internet as to why the sky is blue. The answer usually cites Rayleigh scattering that I've checked on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh_scattering: $$ I=...
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0answers
40 views

Why In Thermosphere is He and O divided as measured? [closed]

If we look Thermosphere a bit closer. we found out that Helium and Oxygen is divided peculiarily. This picture below shows the Earth looked below the south pole. So the orbiting direction is shown in ...
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4answers
3k views

What experiments prove the greenhouse effect?

What experiments prove that heat can be "trapped" by a layer of material with suitable optical properties, such as carbon dioxide? I've read a little on Wikipedia but I've got only some names, not the ...
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0answers
13 views

How much pressure would be on Mars if the icecaps melted?

I was wondering, The martian polar ice caps are made of water and CO2. All documentaries say that melting the poles can add pressure. How much pressure would there be? I know that every summer they ...
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5answers
77k views

Why does the road look like it's wet on hot days?

Often, I'll be driving down the road on a summer day, and as I look ahead toward the horizon, I notice that the road looks like there's a puddle of water on it, or that it was somehow wet. Of course, ...
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0answers
75 views

Covering the whole world in an EMP

I recently thought about shutting down the whole worlds electronics, and naturally ended up with an EMP. I know that EMPs are generated when nuclear bombs explode, but nuclear bombs have some unwanted ...
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3answers
34 views

Pressure and altitude

I am going to ask a simple question, for sure. The pressure with respect to the altitude is given by this formula Where sea level standard atmospheric pressure p0 = 101325 Pa sea level standard ...
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1answer
29 views

dry adiabatic lapse rate

Adiabatic lapse rate is defined as $$ \Gamma_a \equiv -\left(\frac{dT}{dz}\right)_{\rm parcel}=-\frac{R_{\rm a} T}{c_p \,p}\left(\frac{dp}{dz}\right)_{\rm parcel} = \frac{g}{c_p} $$ $R_a$ is gas ...
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1answer
96 views

Is climate change caused by humans? [closed]

Some people argue it is not because it is caused by solar cycles (sometimes the sun brights more than others thus increasing the Earth's temperature) and that the energy that $CO_2$ traps isn't enough ...
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8answers
4k views

How do stars from far away affect Earth?

I know that we obviously get light (or we wouldn't be able to see them), but are there any other ways that they affect Earth and maybe just our solar system in general?
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0answers
57 views

Faster alternative to travel to any location in the west? [closed]

Suppose one needs to travel to Somalia from Indonesia(which are approximately at a distance of $4000$ miles from each other on the line of equator). To accomplish this task, I suggest the following ...
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1answer
51 views

Weight of an air column - what am I doing wrong?

We know that the density of water is 1000 $kg/m^3$ and that of air is 1.225 $kg/m^3$. If I were to calculate the pressure of air at a square at sea level of area 1 $m^2$ in newtons, I'd need the ...
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1answer
230 views

How loud would a sound have to be to be heard around the world?

I'm reading the book Cosmos by Carl Sagan, and in it he states: Striking the Earth's atmosphere, a modest cometary fragment would produce a great radiant fireball and a mighty blast wave, which ...
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2answers
123 views

Can I cook an egg by holding it in thermosphere?

It is known that in thermosphere, air temperature is rising sharply with increase of altitude. In upper atmosphere, temperatures can even reach 2000°C or higher: see 2. However, air there is ...
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0answers
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What is wind chill a function of?

When the weather report includes a wind chill, was that value experimentally determined by sampling the conditions on the day of the report? Or was it calculated from other data? If so, what do you ...
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3answers
484 views

Is apparent horizon curvature lesser due to refraction of light in the atmosphere?

I have encountered this claim while searching for sources answering " Can we see the curvature of earth from the top of world's tallest building? ". Wikipedia article on horizon claims (with no ...
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3answers
599 views

Why Earth's atmosphere behaves like an ideal gas?

In every book I found this sentence like an assumption, without explananions, somebody can help me understand it better?
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1answer
146 views

What confines atmosphere around earth?

Exactly the title. There needs to be a pressure to prevent gases from perpetually expanding, right? Bear with me, I'm not a physicist or studying to be one.
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2answers
70 views

How to estimate wind speed from a pressure difference?

Does a formula (or a rule of thumb) exist to estimate the wind speed between a high pressure area and a low pressure area given the pressure difference between the two areas? Only the wind resulting ...
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4answers
126 views

Is the Air Blue? [duplicate]

Randall Monroe, a credible source in my opinion, says that the sky is blue because the air is: Normal light interacts with the atmosphere through Rayleigh scattering. You may have heard of ...
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1answer
42 views

How can condensation be aided?

I was wondering if certain factors of water vapor condensation can be aided? For example, being able to increase the saturation of water vapor via a certain method, or another example would be having ...
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5answers
80 views

Extract energy from the atmosphere? [closed]

Let's say we would fill a long tube with water. Let's say the tube is 1km in height. At the bottom of this tube, the pressure should be much higher than the top. Also, the tube would lead into a ...
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3answers
191 views

Why is the speed of sound lower at higher altitudes?

At sea level the speed of sound is 760mph, but at altitudes like the Concorde would fly at (55,000ft) the sound barrier is at 660mph, so 1000th slower. Does it have to do with lower pressure?
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1answer
40 views

How much gravity (and/or magnetic field) would a space ship need to generate to hold an atmosphere around it? [duplicate]

Say you wanted a ship to have a bubble of atmosphere around it, 800m in diameter with the ship at the center. What sort of gravity (and perhaps magnetic field) would be needed? Would either of these ...
0
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1answer
80 views

Why lightning most likely occure in night?

This is a question based on my experience. I am not going to prove that lightning (succeed by thunder) never occure in day, but it seems it most likely occure in night. May the humidity of air become ...
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1answer
151 views

How is it possible that Thermosphere can maintain so much heat? [closed]

Thermosphere is the Layer of Atmosphere in approx 100-1000 km altitude. Particles in thermosphere are typically at 1400 K temperature. But the sun activity can raise the temperature up to 2300 K. It'...
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1answer
153 views

Compression vs. Friction - what happens when space objects enter earth's atmosphere

When reading about what happens when cosmic debris enters the earth's atmosphere, some sources say friction, others say compression. For example: On space.com it says: Meteor showers occur when ...
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3answers
191 views

Pressure inside a closed room

I am sitting inside a closed room with a cement ceiling just above my head. The pressure of the atmosphere is exerted on the ceiling from above(outside). But solid cement not being a fluid does not ...
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1answer
42 views

Can we consider light from the Sun during sunrise and nightfall as polarised?

On sunrise and nightfall light looks different, more orange or more dark. Some frequencies are filtered or light travels longer. The energy corresponding to this light is obviously lower than light ...
2
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1answer
196 views

Whirlwind/tornado/dust devil in the middle of nowhere

I live in area which have many properties similar to desert. Many times when I drive by I see a whirlwind/tornado/dust devil of sand or other garbage parts. I would like to ask how this was normally ...
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1answer
376 views

What is the critical mass of a planet to have an atmosphere like Earth's? [closed]

Small planets/orbits like Moon cannot have atmosphere because of their masses. They don't have enough gravity to hold an atmosphere. Then what is the critical mass that makes enough gravity to keep an ...
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0answers
22 views

How atmospheric pressure affects liquid but not solid? [duplicate]

The barometer indicates a difference in elevation of liquid mercury level due to the effect of atmospheric pressure. For 1 square cm of surface the atmospheric pressure exerts what is equivalent to ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Atmospheric pressure's effect on sound

An argument has been travelling in amongst my friends around this matter and after listening about it for 3 whole days I decided to ask it here. The Question is: Would a high atmospheric pressure ...
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2answers
84 views

How does moisture exist in atmosphere?

Moisture is the water vapor in air surrounding us where the temperature is 25 degrees Celsius (say). But the water exists as vapor only above 100 deg C at a pressure of 1 atm. Then how does moisture ...
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0answers
12 views

Atmospheric science and gas laws [duplicate]

If warm air exerts low pressure, then how could both temperature and pressure at surface of the earth is higher than at higher altitudes?
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3answers
1k views

Why is the surface of Venus so hot?

Whenever I have seen Venus described, its high surface temperature is attributed to an intense greenhouse effect. This seems to make sense, as its atmosphere is roughly 96% CO2. But on Earth, the ...
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7answers
2k views

How to keep a helium balloon between 1 to 5 meters above ground? (without it being tied)

I understand that helium balloons rise because their density is less than air, so they can rise up to a point where the air surrounding it has the same weight as the balloon. I was thinking to fill it ...
6
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1answer
107 views

Adiabatic expansion in the atmosphere

When an air parcel rises and cools adiabatically, it is said that there is no heat transfer as work is done on the surrounding atmosphere as the parcel expands. The parcel loses internal energy and ...
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1answer
51 views

What would happen to the Earth's atmosphere if all the solar radiation was in the extreme ultraviolet?

According to this, our Earth's atmosphere is completely opaque to radiation with wavelengths less than 100 nm as this radiation has enough energy to ionize the air. Since the surface temperature of ...
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1answer
76 views

Here's a fun question, what would happen if Venus was thrown off in a highly elliptical orbit? [closed]

I'd like to know what would happen if Venus was flung into a highly eccentric orbit like Sedna (except maybe with its current perihelion) with an orbital period measured in thousands of years by a ...
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3answers
89 views

Green light in the satellite image

What could be the possible reason for the green border visible in this satellite image ? (Image source)
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3answers
2k views

Long-Life High Altitude Balloon

Normally high-altitude balloon experiments end with the balloon popping and the payload falling back down to be reclaimed. But if a second balloon was attached to the payload, one which was only ...