# Tagged Questions

The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets, often applied to questions on Earth's atmosphere but can be applicable to all planets & moons in the solar system.

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### How is 'Fog' in summer (sea-elevation) possible? [on hold]

I am residing in New Delhi (pardon me for any irrelevant data I might include), and I noticed a really interesting thing. It's an average $30^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ out here, and yet, most/some weather ...
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### What conditions are necessary for Birkeland currents to form?

If charged particles flow through non-magnetised space will they form Birkeland current? Or can such currents only form along existing magnetic field lines? Part of the reason I ask is this: http://...
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### How far would the atmosphere have to extend before we couldn't see the sun? [on hold]

Ignoring dust, haze, clouds or ice crystals. Just 100% clean air.
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### Temperature distribution in a column of air

Say there is a sealed cylinder of air that has a height $\mathrm{h}$ and area $\mathrm{A}$ on the ends. The initial temperature throughout the column is $T_0$ and has a uniform initial density $\rho_0$...
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### Why is there less UV light on earth in winter

So I have often read that, at least in e.g. northern Europe, in the colder seasons, there is not enough UV (-B) light arriving from the sun, so many people have not enough vitamin-D from that. At ...
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### How high do you need to be so as to not rotate along with Earth?

So, I saw this meme about some minister commenting that the Earth doesn't rotate, for if it did then planes only need to be in the air and the destination city would come to it. I know this is absurd ...
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### Can an object take off from A, do not move (in the air) but land at a different place? [closed]

Can an object take off at a point A on the surface of the Earth and then land after some time only to land at a different place where it initially took off (because in the mean time the Earth has ...
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### Are clouds forming above a certain height? [closed]

Are clouds forming above a certain height (300m+) and if they do, how are they staying above that certain height and aren't forming let's say at 20-30m from ground. What keeps them so high?
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### How to correctly calculate the colour of the sky?

It is well-known that the sky is blue due to Rayleigh-scattering. What bothers me though is the question how to actually calculate the spectrum of the scattered sunlight. Yes, use one of the ...
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### How much and what kind of sunlight passes through a cloud?

I've read that 80% of sunlight is passing through clouds. Now there a small clouds and big clouds so it should be some average. Is this true or is the amount of sunlight passing throug a cloud really ...
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### How to account for lower tropospheric horizontal refraction

With regards to the lowest 5kms of the troposphere, the International Standard Atmosphere models don't support a notion of a linear increase in air density along Horizontal axes. Yet, the path of ...
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### What is the relationship between atmospheric refraction and path curvature?

Light traveling in a "curved" trajectory suggests a linear increase of the refractive index over the entire distance (uninterrupted super-refraction). A lapse in the increase of the refractive index ...
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### Behaviour of Altimeter at different temperatures

I have realized that the Altimeter of my bike computer (it uses Air Pressure to determine altitude and needs to be calibrated every start) is not consistent at different temperatures. At the Start ...
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### Clarification regarding atmospheric opacity

I have taken a look at the related questions Can someone explain to me the concept of atmosphere opacity? and Why can spacecraft observe terrestrial gamma rays, but terrestrial observers not ...
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### Are lighter molecules in the air more affected by earth gravity?

Or: Why are raindrops falling? In vacuum a heavy (big mass) object is attracted by gravity with the same speed as a light object as shown on the moon with the hamer and the feather. But on earth ...
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### Why would El Niño affect atmospheric CO2 measurements?

Starting with this article in Gizmodo: El Niño Has Pushed Our Planet Past a Major Climate Milestone and then to this commentary in Nature Climate Change El Niño and a record CO2 rise there seems to ...
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### Is aviation exhaust the culprit for climate change? [closed]

The ongoing climate change is the biggest threat to the human civilization. The recent 4-year drought in California, other droughts and floods in different parts of the world are posing serious ...
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### Why does a rolling thunder always starts with a high pitch and ends with a deep, low sound? [duplicate]

Rolling thunders always come cracking in with a high frequency, and the sound grows more deep as the rolling advances, ending with the deep sound of a roaring lion. Why? This is not the same question ...
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### Ultra-cold gas giant atmospheres

In the troposphere, which has the bulk of the atmospheric mass, it's colder at higher altitudes due to adiabatic lapse. Gas giants have several different chemicals that condense into cloud decks at ...
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### Generic Rayleigh effect experiment - nothing happens for water

On youtube, a bunch of Rayleigh scattering experiments (e.g this one are set up with some compound being added to water in order to invoke the effect. Why is there no Rayleigh effect for "pure" water?...
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### Ionospheric electron density measurements

I've been working on measuring total electron column density (TEC) with multi frequency GPS data. In theory, signal delay caused by TEC differences should affect the code and carrier nearly evenly in ...
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### Difference between sunrise and sunset?

Other than knowing which direction is east and which direction is west, or observing for a sufficient timespan (to determine the direction of motion), is there any way of telling whether what one is ...