The study of the composition or dynamics of the gaseous layers around planets.

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Effect of CO2 on the environment, besides greenhouse effect and ocean acidification [on hold]

What effects does the raising level of CO2 in the atmosphere have, besides being a greenhouse gas and responsible for the increased acidity of the oceans? What other environmental damages does it ...
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1answer
25 views

Height and pressure in atmosphere [on hold]

Assuming an atmosphere will obey the hydrostatic equation dP/dz = -pg and the ideal gas law P = (p/uM)kT where M is the mass of a hydrogen atom, u is the mean molecular weight of the atmosphere, p is ...
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2answers
105 views

Why do clouds fly? [duplicate]

I know it's probably the most stupid question there is, but why do they fly are the clouds lighter than air? What's keeping those tiny ice structures floating miles about the ground? I've been looking ...
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1answer
26 views

What is the eastward deflection due to Coriolis force [closed]

Suppose, an air parcel is at the equator, and it has a northward velocity of 10 m/s. Due to Coriolis force, what is the eastward deflection of the parcel when it reaches 30N. Please show full ...
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175 views

Do hail stone fall down just when it is created?

Density of ice is much higher than air. Then how can hail stone remain in earth atmosphere before they fall down ?
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41 views

Stratospheric ship

Let's assume that we build a giant steel hull in a shape of cube with open top (2km long edge) and lift it to the top of stratosphere and then pump air out of it. Would it float on the outer layer of ...
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1answer
33 views

Gases at different pressures reaching uniform pressure

First of all, sorry if my question is dumb, I have very little understanding of physics. Also, English is not my native language. If two gases, initially with different pressures, are mixed in a ...
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0answers
26 views

How does atmospheric pressure work? [duplicate]

I heard that yesterday the atmospheric pressure at my location was exceptionally higher than normal and that explained why I had such a terrible headache all day. But what remained unclear was... How ...
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0answers
14 views

Breatheability of atmosphere above 3000 meters [closed]

I would like to offer you a slight correction on your statement that 3000 m is about the limit of breathable atmosphere. Unless I misunderstood you, I need to point out that many people live in ...
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1answer
69 views

Where is the atmospheric pressure equal to zero?

Consider the following question. My calculation is as follows. \begin{align*} P_C = P_A + \rho g h\\ P_A = P_C - \rho g h \end{align*} Because $P_C=P_0=\rho g h$ then $P_A=0$. Is it correct that ...
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1answer
43 views

Bulk flow of air in a long tube between Antarctica and Australia?

I have a 5km diameter clear plastic tube which is open at each end and runs from the center of Antarctica to Lake Eyre in Australia. The tube is on the ground where it can be and at sea level on the ...
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22 views

Detailed balance formulation in solar cells?

Hello I wanted to know where does the integral of following picture come from and what are the alternatives in it? How and where can i find information i need to know to understand this text? thank ...
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1answer
82 views

Why does the Sun turn red near sunset?

At daytime the Sun's light is yellowish if not near white. Why when the Sun starts to go down that it's light turn more red. I don't think the earth's rotation is so rapid to cause a red shift. Why ...
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69 views

Do we have 2 minutes of extra morning?

my physics teacher told me about the refraction and its applications one of them was 2 minutes of early sunrise and after she explained this effect she concluded that days are 2 minutes longer than ...
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1answer
90 views

Can atmospheric pressure literally push electromagnetic waves?

I work for an IT company and some time ago we had an issue with our wireless internet. We are 5 miles away from the ISP's antenna. Our Sys Admin expressed the view that the electromagnetic waves are ...
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0answers
77 views

How far we can see in the thickest possible fog?

There is quite foggy day today here, I cannot see end of the street. This made me think about how much worse can it be. So here is my question: how thick a fog can be? What's the smallest visibility ...
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2answers
49 views

Why do the terrestrial planets have many of the same gases in their atmospheres?

While the gases are present in very different abundances, and the atmospheres have very different pressures, Earth, Mars and Venus all have a similar cast of gases: nitrogen, argon, CO2, others in ...
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1answer
66 views

How can I estimate confidence intervals around the forecasted temperatures for future days?

Weather.com will happily give me temperature predictions for the next ten days, but no indication of how reliable those predictions are. So if I want to plan something for a week from today, or four ...
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2answers
67 views

How about retrodiction, if climate prediction is difficult?

What I mean by the question is if retrodiction has been attempted back to, say, 50 or 100 years starting with the presently known state of climate as initial conditions using the same equations and ...
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4answers
501 views

Can a small change in the Earth temperature give rise to large-scale climate changes?

Earth's atmosphere is a chaotic system. In such systems arbitrarily small changes the conditions can give rise to very large effects. There are many rumors about the physical and large scale ...
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1answer
45 views

What physical phenomena underly the shape of this graph of diurnal UV index?

When I dig up a graphs of UV index versus time-of-day, most graphs are characteristically shaped like one of the plots shown here: That graph is from this site. What physical phenomena underly ...
10
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1answer
128 views

What is the current physical theory of what causes the 'Morning Glory' roll cloud over Northern Australia?

The Morning Glory roll cloud (pictured below): from this Wikipedia page, which briefly describes the landform and meteorological causes, but states The Morning Glory cloud is not clearly ...
2
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0answers
39 views

Why does the airflow in the mid-stratosphere of the northern hemisphere rotate FASTER than the earth?

I have been playing around with this nice visualisation and noticed that in the mid-stratosphere (P=10hPa), the airflow around the equator and south of it is in the opposite direction to the earth's ...
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35 views

How does the atmospheric UVB attenuation of terrestrial planets compare?

On Earth, UVB (280nm - 315nm or 320nm depending on the source) undergoes extensive attenuation through the atmosphere, when observed at the planet's surface, as illustrated below: Image source ...
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67 views

Mathematical approaches to atmospheric refraction

Understanding atmospheric refraction, particularly of ultraviolet, and into the blue part of the visible spectrum is of great interest to me. Although, I have a strong background in trigonometry and ...
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2answers
99 views

Why did they used to make the mill chimneys so tall?

Why did they used to make the mill chimneys so tall? This question was asked in an Engineering Interview at Cambridge University.
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1answer
31 views

What weathering mechanism leads to reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere?

Wikipedia says: The global temperature of the Earth will climb because of the rising luminosity of the Sun, the rate of weathering of silicate minerals will increase. This in turn will decrease ...
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56 views

Relative velocity decomposition

In my fluid dynamics course notes is stated a change in relative velocity can be decomposed: $$\delta \mathbf{v} = \left\{ \begin{pmatrix} \Delta & 0 \\ 0 & \Delta \end{pmatrix} + ...
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1answer
150 views

Physical interpretation of the Lorenz system

The Lorenz equations $$ \frac{dx}{dt} = \sigma(y-x);\\ \frac{dy}{dt} = x(\rho-z)-y;\\ \frac{dz}{dt} = xy - \beta z $$ were (I believe) the first set of nonlinear equations known to exhibit chaotic ...
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0answers
29 views

What are the physics challenges of rain farming [closed]

Rain farming is an engineering concept, employing the technology of industrial cooling towers, to deliver vast amounts of water to the lower levels of the troposphere as warm moist air. This question ...
16
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1answer
356 views

Causes of hexagonal shape of Saturn's jet stream

NASA has just shown a more detailed picture of the hexagonal vortex/storm on Saturn: http://www.ibtimes.com/nasa-releases-images-saturns-hexagon-mega-storm-may-have-been-swirling-centuries-1496218 ...
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2answers
71 views

Expression for Atmospheric Pressure with Altitude, including Tidal Forces

Is this simple to obtain? I've tried to modify the constant-gravity model to use the $GM/r^2$ form instead, but my result was shown to be wrong with some testing. Constant Gravity Model You can ...
5
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1answer
84 views

Predominant light frequency over the day?

I'm not well-versed in physics, so I hope you'll forgive me if this question is significantly off the mark. I'm interested in the predominant frequencies of light over the course of one day. My ...
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1answer
84 views

'Hole in the clouds' in the Sarychev Peak eruption

One of my favourite ever pictures taken from space is a picture of the 2009 eruption of Sarychev Peak (Ostrov Matua island, Japan) taken by an ISS astronaut during a lucky fly-over. Image Source: ...
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74 views

How Temperature, Pressure and Altitude are related in the atmosphere?

I'm looking for an approximation for the temperature of the atmosphere at any height and pressure. Both altitude and pressure are known variables, I've derived this equation using maxwell's ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Whirlwind/tornado/dust devil in the middle of nowhere

I live in area which have many properties similar to desert. Many times when I drive by I see a whirlwind/tornado/dust devil of sand or other garbage parts. I would like to ask how this was normally ...
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4answers
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Does the moon affect the Earth's climate?

So, this morning I was talking to a friend about astronomical observations, and he told me that lately there has only been good weather when there was a full moon in the sky, which was a shame. I ...
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0answers
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What is the mean ionospheric height?

I am reading some articles about the ionosphere and I am a little bit confused about the terms mean ionospheric height and effective height of the ionosphere. Are these the same thing? I would ...
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2answers
126 views

Cloud Microphysics - Does It contain Ice Or Water Or Both?

I'm not sure if this is the right site to post this on but I have a project where I have some cloud microphysical properties: ...
4
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0answers
31 views

What is the reason of the semidiurnal pressure oscillation in the atmosphere?

It appears that in many (most) places on earth, a pressure oscillation of a 100-200 Pa takes place twice a day : that is, with maxima around 12AM and 12PM and minima around 6AM and 6PM. I've found ...
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1answer
71 views

What confines atmosphere around earth?

Exactly the title. There needs to be a pressure to prevent gases from perpetually expanding, right? Bear with me, I'm not a physicist or studying to be one.
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1answer
77 views

Motion of elevating airplane

I wonder how the motion of an airplane which will not try stop to elevate should look like. Of course, at some point the plane will no longer be able to go to higher altitudes but is it going to stay ...
2
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2answers
301 views

Why England is so cloudy?

Why, physically, some regions of the globe are affected by a noticeable cloudiness respect to others? Is the reason why some places are also rainy the same?
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3answers
748 views

Calculating Atmospheric Pressure on an Imaginary Planet

I am planning a series of science fiction novels that take place on an imaginary binary planet system. Both planets have a lower surface gravity than the Earth and one has slightly more mass than the ...
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1answer
72 views

Why do planets other than earth have colours?

I know Mars has many red rocks and mountains. But since it does not have any atmosphere, it shouldn't have any color. So, why does it appear red?
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365 views

How does humidity affect the path of a bullet?

Background Last night, I was reading the FM 23-10 (The U.S. army official field manual for sniper training), and I've noticed that they're potentially teaching snipers incorrect information. ...
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5answers
813 views

Can Helium Disappear from Earth?

Can Helium disappear? As we know Helium is lighter than air, so basically Helium fly off from Earth. Is it possible that in the future we will run out Helium?
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1answer
48 views

What is the height of breeze/wind?

How high does a breeze/wind blow? (If you are out in the open and can feel the breeze blowing, till how high is this breeze felt?) And what are the factors that affect it?
3
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1answer
273 views

How many oxygen molecules touch you in your lifetime?

Following up on a comment by BlueRaja to this beautiful answer of Ilmari Karonen, I would like to phrase this follow up question: How many air molecules hit your average human's skin during their ...
19
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2answers
775 views

Are the air particles in today's wind on earth (more or less) the same as the air 2/3 billion years ago?

So the air pressure on earth remains relatively constant, right? Is there air gained or lost through transitions of any sort? e.g. plumes going out into space, earth gaining new air particles with ...