# Tagged Questions

The science dealing with objects and phenomena located beyond Earth. In particular, this applies to observations and data. At its core, astronomy is the physically informed cataloging and classifying of the contents of the universe in order to better understand what is out there.

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### A question about the Fermi acceleration

In high school physics, we know that a charged particle cannot gain energy from a magnetic field. But, it seems that in the so-called Fermi acceleration, the particle is accelerated by the magnetic ...
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### Cosmic Scale Factor $R$ and redshift

I'm slightly confused by an idea of redshift: If we assume the distance between two points is given by: $$d = R Δx$$ we can assume that $$λ_0 = R_0 Δx$$ And when we receive the emission it will ...
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### Mathematically calculate if a Planet is in Retrograde

How do you mathematically calculate if a Planet is in Retrograde when you are given both the Earth and the Planet Keplerian Elements value and rate? Keplerian Elements are: a - Semi-Major Axis; e - ...
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### Can we calculate the point on Earth nearest to the Moon?

We have the ability to calculate the Moon's orbit in order to predict Lunar and Solar eclipses precisely. Using our known calculations of the Moon's orbits, can we calculate the closest point (city ...
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### Cameras in Voyager probes

I've always wondered about the cameras in the space probes, especially in the Voyagers. 1) What kind of cameras do they have? Digital? (What kind of sensor and megapixel count?) Analog? (Do they ...
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### Will stars disappear from the sky when their particle horizon is outside the event horizon

Given that the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate, will there be a point where stars visible in the night sky will simply disappear from view when their particle horizon is outside the event ...
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### How many percent of the visible light reaching the Earth are from other stars than the Sun?

How many percent of the whole visible light reaching the Earth are from other stars than the Sun? Is it maybe 0,5 - 1% or is my guess already too much? I am interested mainly in visible light, but ...
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### What is meant by the point-source response of eye or telescope?

I have heard that a source is called unresolved if it is much smaller in angular size than the point-source response of the eye or telescope observing it. What is the meaning of point-source response ...
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### Why Free-Free emission is regarded as Thermal emission?

I read that thermal emission/radiation are the ones whose spectra is similar to that of a Black body radiation. Also thermal radiation depends solely on the temperature of the object. How can we ...
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### What's the evidence, if any, for some local concentration(s) of dark matter in some region(s) smaller than a galaxy?

What's the evidence, if any, for some local concentration(s) of dark matter in some region(s) smaller than a galaxy? Galactic-sized - or larger - gravitating halos seem to get all the attention. I'm ...
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### Distances between stars and their sizes

At the begining I wish to apologise for naive question, but one thing puzzles me. Let's say we observe two stars that have average brightness. One can easily see that they are not points, but those ...
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### Why is the distribution of Cosmic Rays isotropic?

We observe that cosmic rays (CRs) are isotropic on the sky, i.e. they come from all directions with no apparent preference. I understand this is related to the deflection of these CRs by the magnetic ...
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### Finding the remnants of recent supernova explosions in the solar system's neighbourhood

I just found an article, Long-Ago Supernovae Littered Earth, which reviews evidence presented in The locations of recent supernovae near the Sun from modelling 60Fe transport; D. ...
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### Why are there more meteorite falls during April?

I was reading this article about the Nov 2015 Fireball surge. One explanation was that "... gravitational forces from Jupiter causes the Taurid meteor stream to be more heavily concentrated near Earth ...
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### Why can't we detect the Earth's orbital motion when looking at the sky and stars?

After I read that speed of earth orbit around the sun is 30 km/s, I looked at sky and I didn't notice any change when compared to the start location. 30 km/s can be converted to (30 * 60 ) km/minute ...
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### Light pollution and visibility of Milky way [closed]

Say, 1000 years ago, when there was (almost) no light pollution or air pollution, would the milky-way galaxy have been visible at night, anywhere on Earth?
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### Density of stars near the center of the Milky Way

At night, I can look up and see the Milky Way across the sky. My question is, supposing our solar system was, instead of way out on an 'arm' of the galaxy, if we were near the galactic center. Would ...
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### Why don't stars re-emit the photons they absorb, thus restoring a continuous emission spectrum?

If you shine white light through a gas, electrons can absorb sufficiently energetic photons to reach higher excited states. This produces gaps in the spectrum and it's how Helium was discovered. So ...
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### What causes damage to interference filters?

I am currently working on a UV detector meant to be mounted on a CubeSat satellite. To select the bandwidth, I consider using an interference filter placed between the detector and the source. ...
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### Are there any models for distribution of asteroid sizes in a belt?

Question: Is there any function that can describe the distribution* of asteroid diameters expected within an*' asteroid belt? *: distribution as frequency of occurrence within the asteroid belt or ...
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### What are the demographics of stars visible to the naked eye?

Of the stars that can be seen with the naked eye, what are the distributions of each type? For example, how many are main sequence? how many are Super Red giants/white dwarfs/neutron stars...etc. ...
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### The fainter the star, the further away it is?

If a star appears to be very faint, does that imply that it's really far away, or that its intrinsic luminosity is small? More precisely: If I look up into the cosmos and see a star that is very ...
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### What size of object does the peak of the cosmological power spectrum correspond to?

The title almost says it all, but to flesh it out more, what is the size a sphere corresponding to the peak in the cosmological power spectrum (Figure 2: ...
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### Why don't the black holes appear black in color in images of galaxies taken from HST?

According to NASA a black hole is anything but empty space. Rather, it is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area According to the documentary Space Unraveling The Cosmos about ...
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### Precision orbit parameters: Is it possible to determine the position of orbiting exoplanets after eg. 50 years?

Is it possible to determine the position of orbiting exoplanets after eg. 50 years? Many parameters of the orbits have large estimates eg .: Tau Ceti f: Orbital period (P) = 642 ± 30 days. It is up to ...
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### Synthetic Photometry - Calculating a colour index

I have a theoretical black body spectrum, described by plancks law. I also ave the bandpass sensitivity function for various filters. I would like to calculate a colour index from this information, so ...
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### From how far away could Earth's telescopes detect Earth like radio signals?

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There are no book recommendations for Astrophysics here. I will write my own answer, but I am also interested in what are others' views on the question (I will NOT mark my own answer as the best one). ...
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### Planetary alignment of the gas giants?

There is this nice and new applet of the orbits of the planets around the sun: Solar System Orrery You can click and drag any planet and watch their relative orbits evolve in time. I was curious ...
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### What could this star-like object in the morning sky have been?

At sunrise this morning and yesterday morning, around 6:45 am in Chicago, a bright light appeared in the eastern sky over Lake Michigan. It twinkled like a star, but it was much larger and brighter ...
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### Negative Parallax

I am constructing a Hertzsprung-Russel diagram for stars within a radius around Pleiades and have repeatedly come across stars that have negative parallaxes. For example, ...
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### What is the difference between UT0, UT1 and GMT time?

Every reference I find says that they are "essentially" the same, which we all know really means that they are not the same, but different only by a some small amount that someone else other than me ...
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### I have a fits file. I need to find the brightest pixel?

When I use astropy.fits to read the data of the fits file, I get a numpy array of values of shape(64,32,32). I am not able to understand what does this array contain. Ofcourse they are not RGB values ...
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### What is the possibility of using the ionosphere or van Allen belts as a source of propellant for ion engines especially for orbital station keeping?

Just like how a jet engine uses the air it moves through to propel it self forward. In this case energy for ionizing the propellant won't be needed because we already have ions. How viable is my ...
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### What is the angular distance between Ptolemaic perigees of Mercury?

In his excellent treatment of the history of the science of astronomical distances and sizes, Albert van Helden says (p.29) that The complicated [Ptolemaic] model of Mercury has the curious ...
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### Light curve analysis: how to estimate temperatures of Binary star system

I'm stuck at a binary star system lightcurve analysis. I have to set initial values for the bodies temperatures and then improve their accuracy by fitting. I know that the system type is WUMa. How ...
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### How would I calculate celestial body characteristics without a priori knowledge?

Without any a priori knowledge of the mass, speed, distance, and size of local celestial bodies (aside from Earth's size), what can I calculate and how from my "backyard" through observation? Edit: ...
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### How stellar aberration is measured?

A simple calculation shows that stellar aberration due orbital motion of earth is roughly 20 arcseconds. My questions are: Practically how this small value is measured? Does this value is in the ...
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### How vacuous is intergalactic space?

You often hear intergalactic space is an example for a very good vacuum. But how vacuos is space between galaxy clusters and inside a huge void structure? Are there papers quoting a ...
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### Where can I find data for the masses/component velocities of galaxies in the Local Group?

I am trying to run an N body simulation to see how galaxies in the Local Group gravitationally interact for my thesis, but I can't find any data for the masses of the galaxies in the Local Group, or ...
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### Does solar eclipse have impact over increase of earth's temperature?

Does a solar eclipse have an impact on global temperature? Wired theory : When I jump, does the Earth recoil? Yes, the Earth has to move in some way for momentum to be conserved. However, since ...
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### Why don't we see solar and lunar eclipses often?

Since we see the new moon at least once in a month when the Moon gets in between of the Sun and the Earth during the evening ( and as far as I know if this happens during the day, you'll get to see a ...
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### What are the main issues limiting resolution of gamma ray detectors?

Current gamma ray detector resolution is far from diffraction limited. For example, Swift's Burst Alert Telescope has a resolution of 1-4 arcminutes for gamma ray bursts (Wikipedia:Swift). My ...
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### Gravitational wave detection and electromagnetic counterpart

Background Referring to this article on Fermi EM signal, 0.4 s after the gravitational wave detection by LIGO, FERMI detected an electromagnetic signal (poorly localized) with a false alarm ...
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### Current length of the solar day?

As can be seen in this diagram, the length of the solar day has varied Question considerably the last century. But the diagram is incomplete and doesn't show the very last years. Can anyone tell me ...
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### Formula for getting time of sunrise at a particular location?

Is there a formula that can get sunrise at a particular latitude and longitude (and elevation from sea level)? If so, what it is? (Why does it work?)
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### Calculating telescope detection rate

I am working through a paper from Inoue et al. 2013. In section 6.1, pg 18 it states, ... assuming a whole sky rate of ∼ 600 GRBs/year, a 5◦ diameter FoV and a 10% duty cycle, the telescopes ...
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### What is the largest observed celestial body?

I'm not referring to phenomena such as galaxies or clusters but rather, what is the largest discrete celestial body that has been observed in the universe?