Inspired by this question on the Doppler shift, suppose there is buoy somewhere on the surface of the ocean emitting a pure frequency.
You get to place some boats wherever you want on the surface of the ocean, moving whatever direction you want with whatever speed you want.
The boats listen to the pure frequency, which will in general be Doppler shifted due to the relative motion between buoy and boat. If you do not know ahead of time the frequency the buoy is emitting, is it possible to deduce the buoy's location simply by observing the frequency measured by the boats? What is the minimum number of boats necessary, how should they be positioned, and what velocities should they have?
This is a toy problem with the mathematics of the Doppler effect, so let's leave out attenuation of sound over distance and assume the surface of the ocean is a plane. Also, if the boats could continuously monitor the Doppler shift, they could collect extra information based on their own changes in position and velocity, so imagine locating the buoy based solely on a single frequency measurement from each boat.