I'm looking for an originally German introduction to quantum mechanics. Is there such a canonical book used in German QM undergraduate courses?
I think a very good orignally german QM book is:
there is also a second volume:
Another good book is from G. Grawert: Quantenmechanik
You may also have a look at Thirrings books about QM (it is mathematically more advanced).
I think Straumanns book is not "canonical".
Often used by students are the books by Nolting and Greiner.
From the experimental point of view you may have a look at Demtröders book.
Walter Greiner's first part on Quantum Mechanics