Assume that by some means, the moon could be given an atmosphere, of the same density and pressure at the surface as the earth's. Obviously in a stable atmosphere there are temperature variations from pole to equator, day to night, and a lot of interesting dynamics follow from that, but for argument's sake assume an average of something like 0 to 5 C.
How long would it last?
Clearly there's no air there now (unless you count traces of potassium, or whatever it has), so such at artificial atmosphere would not be permanent, but presumably the moon could hang onto some air, for some time. With the moon's lower gravity, the density or pressure vs altitude curve will be different, and I'd guess that a significantly larger fraction of the mass would be at higher altitudes than on earth, and there's no protection from the solar wind. Someone with the right equations could probably work out how long it would take the pressure at the surface to drop by half.