My question is mainly an engineering question. Assume I have a turbine in which I adiabatically expand compressed air. The air cools down and does work to its surroundings, which is captured by the blades of the turbine and then is transformed into rotational energy/electricity.

When instead I let the compressed air flow through a nozzle into open space (no vacuum) and it expands adiabatically, it also cools down. But where is the internal energy of the air going? It does work to its surroundings, but where does this work end up? Does the surrounding heat up? Does it produce wind, i.e. kinetic energy in the surrounding air?

Feel free to replace adiabatic with polytropic. Whenever the gas cools down, I ask: Where does the energy end up, when I do not capture it with a turbine?

-