No it would not. Both from a purely physical point of view, and from a practical one.
From a physical perspective, the wheels have a lot of inertia going forward. To make them spin back you would have to exert enormous, and almost instantaneous, power in the reverse direction.
In practice, even if you would manage to do that, the backwards motion of the wheels would take a long time to compensate the inertia of the whole vehicle. The wheels would just spin backwards and slide and no braking would take place. The only net result would probably be a nice set of skid marks on the ground, and a crashed car.
What ABS really does is to ease the braking on a wheel that starts to lock up, simply because a locked wheel, much like a backwards-rotating wheel, will have little friction with the ground and will not contribute towards stopping the car. ABS reduces the brake power applied to that wheel until it starts spinning correctly, then it applies normal braking again.