Without any a priori knowledge of the mass, speed, distance, and size of local celestial bodies (aside from Earth's size), what can I calculate and how from my "backyard" through observation?
My goal is to create a high-school level physics project that students can conduct over the course of a year/term as both a physics problem mixed with a bit of astrophysics history. Core concepts would include observation (within reason). This isn't meant to be extremely precise work (within an order of magnitude would be excellent), but to demonstrate the methods.
Given a bunch of knowns, it's trivial to find out one unknown, but I am unsure of how to start from square one like the early physicists and astronomers did in times past.