If I understand your question correctly, one aspect that you seem to be asking about is the relationship between and object's speed and the associated air resistance (as in your title) - which is often referred to as 'drag'.
The Physics Hypertextbook chapter Aerodynamic Drag, generally relates drag, defined as:
The force on an object that resists its motion through a fluid is called drag ($R$). When the fluid is a gas like air, it is called aerodynamic drag (or air resistance).
as being proportional to the square of the object's velocity ($v$) as:
$$R \propto v^2$$
So, you can see that as you get fast, the effect of drag increases faster.
This relationship is from the drag formula:
$$R = 0.5\rho CAv^2$$
(where $\rho$ is the fluid density, $C$ is the drag coefficient and $A$ is the surface area affected)