Here is a video of Michio Kaku discussing Moore's Law and the quantum mechanical limits thereof.
Around the 1:30 mark he's talking about how the chips today have a layer of 20 atoms across (I'm assuming Silicon atoms?). He goes on to say that if that number drops down to 5 atoms across, QM starts to play a role and because of the uncertainty principle we don't know where the electrons are anymore. This brings up 2 questions for me:
Why is 5 (silicon?) atoms the mark where QM starts to take over? Is there some way to show this using equations or is this just based off empirical evidence?
He's talking about the size of the chips in atoms, logically, but then brings up electrons as the particles which are affected by the reducing size of the chips. This confuses me. Why does it 'matter' for the electron that the chip gets smaller in size? In order words, why aren't the electrons affected by HUP in chips with a layer of 20 atoms across, but they are affected in chips with a later of ~ 5 atoms across?