If we look at the Einstein vacuum equations, that is without matter (there is the possibility or curvature without matter), for instance we may consider gravitational waves. The question is: Is there some link between the Riemann curvature tensor, and/or the Weyl tensor, and some gravitational "physical" quantities (as stress-energy tensor or total energy) (one may take the example of gravitational waves). Of course, at first glance, there is no covariant gravitational stress-energy tensor, so it seems there is no relation, but maybe things are more subtle?
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Maybe you could clarify what you want that would qualify as "physical." Curvature is observable, and IMO is physical. Projects like LIGO are designed to detect gravitational waves. Gravity Probe B was a project that accomplished its purpose of essentially verifying GR's predictions of spacetime curvature in the neighborhood of a gravitating, spinning body. In the simplest terms, curvature can be measured by transporting a gyroscope around a closed path. This is essentially what GPB did.
But that's only a prohibition on defining a local measure of gravitational-wave energy. For example, in an asymptotically flat spacetime, the ADM energy includes energy being radiated away to null infinity by gravitational waves. If LIGO-like projects succeed, they will measure the energy of gravitational waves.