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Can I decrease a photon's wavelength by a medium or a vacuum? Are there other ways of decreasing the wavelength?

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Possibly Related: physics.stackexchange.com/questions/13675/… –  Joe Aug 11 '13 at 17:52
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There are non-linear optical processes like frequency doubling, but you don't get something for nothing (of course), you lose photon count in doing it. –  dmckee Aug 11 '13 at 18:21
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Just to mention the basics for "other ways"', you can hit your photon really hard with a fast moving electron or proton, i.e. inverse Compton scattering. ICS is very important in many astrophysical contexts. If you even reflect the photon off a moving mirror, you can slightly increase or decrease its wavelength

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