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Analysis of data is integral in bridging the gap between theory and experiment. My question is about the two major methods of approaching the analysis - Bayesian and Frequentist. How much do the results of the analysis depend upon the choice of the method?

For instance, consider experiments in Particle Physics. This paper by Louis Lyons states that Particle Physicists use a hybrid approach to analysis. (Frequentist hypothesis testing and Bayesian parameter estimation.) If a purely Bayesian/Frequentist approach was applied, would there be a difference in the results of the analysis? What implication would any difference have on the interpretation of data?

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(Disclaimer: theoretician speaking) I would be perfectly happy if the experimentalists used a purely Bayesian approach, as long as they don't let the theorists set the priors. :) That said, I don't know that there can be any short answer to this question... –  Michael Brown Aug 1 '13 at 5:17
@MichaelBrown Why shouldn't theorists set priors? A bit strange thing to hear from a theorist. :) With the question I'd be happy with a single example as opposed to a comprehensive analysis of all of experimental Physics. –  Comp_Warrior Aug 1 '13 at 12:56

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