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Which was the original paper on the representations of the Lorentz group? Is there even one paper on this, or was this knowledge gained iteratively in a series of papers?

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E. Wigner Annals of Mathematics Second Series, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan., 1939), pp. 149-204 is the really famous one. I don't know what came before that, if anything. – Michael Brown Jul 5 '13 at 11:23
@MichaelBrown that should be an answer – David Z Jul 6 '13 at 4:52
@DavidZaslavsky I was waiting to see if anyone knew more of the history. I'll put it up now. – Michael Brown Jul 6 '13 at 7:25
up vote 5 down vote accepted

I don't really know the history of the subject, but the paper that has all the main results (the Wigner classification) is

On Unitary Representations of the Inhomogeneous Lorentz Group, E. Wigner, Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan., 1939), pp. 149-204.

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