What I mean by effective in the question refers to the time and space requirements for sending information over a quantum communications channel. Having read "Mike and Ike" but doing no independent research on the question, my initial impression is that a channel using an effect from quantum field theory e.g. quantum electrodynamics would be more powerful over a narrower range of algorithms than an "ordinary" or "vanilla" quantum computer i.e. one that derived information from its steady-state behavior e.g. quantum electrostatics.
Are there any quantum information theorists working on proving whether this is true or false?
Allow me to quote from the portion of the book the provoked the question (p.6):
At the time of writing it is not clear whether Deutsch’s notion of a Universal Quantum Computer is sufficient to efficiently simulate an arbitrary physical system. Proving or refuting this conjecture is one of the great open problems of the field of quantum computation and quantum information. It is possible, for example, that some effect of quantum field theory or an even more esoteric effect based in string theory, quantum gravity or some other physical theory may take us beyond Deutsch’s Universal Quantum Computer, giving us a still more powerful model for computation. At this stage, we simply don’t know.
I simply assume that a more powerful model of computation would give rise to a more efficient communications channel. Unless there has been a proof of the universality of a Universal Quantum Computer it seems that whoever said 'quantum is quantum' is very much getting ahead of themselves.
Now, with all that being said, I reiterate my previous question: are there any quantum information theorists working on proving whether this is true or false?