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I was recently reading the Wikipedia Page for Europa as I am interested in terra-formation. In one of the sentences, it says that:

The radiation level at the surface of Europa is equivalent to a dose of about 5400mSv (540 rem) per day,[32] an amount of radiation that would cause severe illness or death in human beings exposed for a single day.[33]

I know that there are different types of radiation (gamma rays, visible light, infrared, etc.) and was wondering, what is the makeup of the radiation which hits Europa?

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The Wikipedia page to which you linked actually has citations which, if followed, would give you the exact information you seek:


Effects of radiation, from solar flares:

  • Makes aurorae (air glows, like fluorescent lamps)
  • Health danger to astronauts
  • Ages spacecraft electronics (2 satellites failed after 1989 March flare)
  • Charges up spacecraft, causes electical problems
  • Charges up high-voltage power lines, caused Hydro Quebec blackout (1989)

Types of radiation:

  • charged particles (protons, electrons, alpha particles (helium nuclei)
  • neutrons
  • ionizing electromagnetic radiation: gamma rays and X-rays

All so energetic, they ionize matter, e.g. your cell membranes.

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