Concerning the 8-shaped bubbles around the galaxy, see
They're not pictures of photons - X-rays themselves. The infinity symbol is a picture of X-ray sources: we are observing the X-rays that came from those sources here. Note that the whole structure is smaller than 100,000 light years or so - very tiny when compared to the cosmological distances. So if the 8-shaped sources were created 10 million years ago, the time needed for the photons to get here is negligible. They're here "immediately".
It's hard to measure the distance from which an X-ray is approaching us. However, you should understand that the Sun and the Earth are not in the middle of the Milky Way. They're not in the middle of the 8-shaped figure. We're looking at the situation from the "side" (the Solar System is somewhere between the center and the visible edge of our Galaxy) so we literally see something that is 8-shaped in the skies. Assuming that the distribution of the sources is rotationally symmetric - with respect to the Milky Way's axis - one can actually reconstruct the shape of the sources in 3D from the 2D picture we see (because the 3D picture only depends on 2 dimensions, because of the axial symmetry).