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  1. Has martian sunset same spectra than this earthly bluish-violet sunset?

  2. What about sunset on Mercury?

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The composition of Martian atmosphere is quite different from the one on Mother Earth (see Mars-GRAM model developed by C.G.Justus from MSFC at Huntsville, Ala. for details). On this planet, colors at sunset (and the unforgettable green ray) are dependent on water content. On Mars, it is the amount of dust in the air and related scattering that changes the colors from one season to another. To see for yourself, please visit JPL's multimedia page with raw images from the Curiosity rover.

NASA rover spirit on the rim of Gusev crater on May 19, 2005

NASA rover Spirit on the rim of Gusev crater on May 19, 2005

Credit: NASA/JPL/Texas A&M/Cornell

A video with a Martian sunset seen from NASA rover Opportunity.

This said, for the same spectrum each camera has its own sensitivity curve, and cannot (broadly speaking) replace a human observer. Even corrected colors are not quite the same as the real stuff. For reference: different color sets in Gale Crater.

Mount Sharp in three sets of colors

Curiosity on August 23, 2012

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

On Mercury, you will have to wait long to see the sunset, and will be disappointed by the colors due to lack of perceptible atmosphere. This assumes that your thermal control can cope with being continuously grilled by the Sun during the "day" and frozen at "night", and that your UV protection is strong enough to prevent rapid onset of cancer. Would say, these are rather pressing issues that significantly impair your ability to conduct observations.

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I thought mars had almost no atmosphere –  Dario Alexander May 1 '13 at 0:59

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