Physics, by definition, is the subset of Mathematics which pertains to our universe.
By the way, I assume that by "Particle Physics", you mean "Quantum Field Theory", Relativistic Quantum Mechanics applied to (quantum) fields.
My current knowledge is of all the elementary particles and how they
interact and build upon each other to build the macroscopic world. I
am just starting into trying to understand the forces and how they
work. I just now a few days ago understand why nucleuses don't blow
apart (residual forces).
Well, to learn even this much properly, you'll need to learn much more mathematics.
Assuming you already know Khan Academy level maths, you'll have to learn some
Partial Differential Equations
Group Theory and Abstract Algebra
Exterior Algebra and more generally, Clifford Algebras
Tensors and Riemannian Geometry
So will I be able to continue foreward and understand more in particle
physics or should I stop now and start learning probability theory and
whatever else I might need?
Just learn the Khan Academy level maths and the above mentioned topics. And a lot of physics pre - requisites like:
Lagrangian Mechanics and Hamiltonian Mechanics
General Relativity (not compulsoury, but to get the intuitiion behind quantum field theory)
Matrix Quantum Mechanics and Schrodinger's wave Quantum Mechanics
(Special) Relativistic Quantum Mechanics; Klein-Gordon, Dirac, Weyl Equations
Some Quantum Electrodynamics (Well, arguably, this is a part of Quantum Field Theory)
Is there a place where I can start to learn the maths? Is there a
place where I can learn all the maths but on a novice level?
Why'd you want to learn it at a novice level? With that, you'll learn nothing.
Anyway, see this list().
Quick note/question/insight into my knowledge level: The coolest thing
I have seen/understood is how the electromagnetic force works. (please
correct me if I am wrong) Photons bounce back and fourth between
particles in atoms creating the force field?
Qualitatively, the answer is "whatever, I guess that I could say, yes." but Quantitatively, the answer is honestly just nothing but a "nonsense.". So just learn the math.