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James Joule established that all forms of energy were basically the same and interchangeable. My question is if thas law is relevant in particle physics. Can a positive charge and a negative charge be interchangeable? Will the force carrying particles allow it?

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Electric charges aren't a kind of energy. – Dan Mar 29 '13 at 18:19

all forms of energy were basically the same and interchangeable

There are other conservation laws to take into account besides energy conservation. Charge is conserved so in every reaction the total charge cannot change, which rules out your example.

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