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When a incandescent lamp implodes, the filament burns up and the current is interrupted.

Yesterday, a compact fluorescent lamp imploded and blew all the switches / fuses. I'm not sure if the same would happen with ordinary fluorescent lamps.

Can it be that the charge stored in the capacitor is released backwards? Is something else going on?

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It very much depends on the control gear, there are a variety of designs for circuits for starting and running fluorescent tubes. I don't think any of them involve capacitors but there is likely to be an inductor that might cause a voltage spike when the circuit is broken. Normally, an implosion of the tube would not by itself cause a short circuit and so would not trip circuit breakers (surely you don't have quaint 20th C fuses)

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No, the installation was done in 2006. –  GUI Junkie Mar 30 '13 at 11:00
    
I don't see how an inductor could cause a spike. Could you explain that? –  GUI Junkie Mar 30 '13 at 11:10
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