Is it possible to charge a capacitor to any potential? Does it depend on the dielectric placed between them? Or, are there other factors affecting it?
Yes, you can charge capacitor to any potential if in a vaccum .
But placing a dielectric inside it defines its dielectric strength and breakdown voltage above which the covalent bonds in dielectric material breaks down to bring large amount of charge carriers and thus is starts acting as conductor and capacitance becomes infinite.