The link that Chris gave is a good answer, but there are a couple of related issues to mention:
Firstly you ask:
has the universe at some point expanded faster than the speed of light
and the answer is that, yes, it has (or at least we think so), and this expansion is called inflation. Secondly you ask:
Does this imply that there were some objects many billions of light years away from us even in the earliest stages of the expansion of the universe
and the answer is again yes (or at least we think so). The Big Bang wasn't an expansion from a point. If you take the simplest model of the universe, the FLRW metric, then if the universe is infinite now it has always been infinite right back to the Big Bang. There are loads of answers related to this point on this site. See for example my recent answer to Was the singularity at Big Bang perfectly uniform and if so, why did the universe lose its uniformity? or just search the site for FLRW metric.