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Consider we launch a cannonball due south from a point at 45 degrees latitude in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g the point defined with the co-ordinate system on this diagram). The cannonball travels for 5 minutes (through vacuum - ignore air resistance), experiences Coriolis deflection and drifts 'right/west' ending up at 40 degrees latitude.

A few nanoseconds before it hits the ground, the rotational/tangential speed of the cannonball is slower than the tangential speed of the ground below. In order for the cannonball to stick/stay at the point of impact, its tangential speed must match the speed of the ground.

What effect does this difference in speed have on the cannonball on landing/impact? Does it experience a sudden west-east acceleration due to friction? If yes, would this effect be even more pronounced in this case where the project is fired from North Pole?

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There is no significant difference between what happens in the east-west direction and what happens in the north-south one. Upon impact it will experience a pretty sudden acceleration due to the impact, and depending on the trajectory and the nature of where it hits the ground, it may not stick, but rebound, skid, or whatever...

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