Supposing you are given a transmitting antenna of whatever type of metal is most commonly used these days, and supposing that you are applying an AC current with the intent of transmitting a 1 m wavelength radio signal, about how far is one electron likely to make it in one direction along the antenna conductor in one half cycle from a negative peak to a positive peak, factoring in the likelihood of the presence of antenna material atoms affecting the electron's path? Can individual charge carriers actually make it very far (on the order of meters) through metal?
But if the answer is that individual charge carriers actually only make a microscopic or very small displacement in space, how could a 1 m electromagnetic wave be produced? I don't see how a large number of charge carriers each only making a very small displacement in space can add up to a 1 m wave.
This site, especially Fig. 2 there, is where I'm getting my basic understanding of how alternating current gets an EM wave transmitted. From that is where I got the feeling that charge carriers would actually need to make a displacement in space on the same order as the intended EM wave.