I understand the concepts of relativity, but I don't know where to go to set up equations to do any actual calculations. For example, what equations would I use to find out the following:
A ship leaves earth and accelerates up to .5c over the course of 1,000 years. it travels for another 1,000 years, and then decelerates for 1,000 years to 0c. How many years have passed e.g.
(a) on the ship, relative to the ship?
(b) on the ship, relative to the earth?
(c) on the earth relative to the earth?
(d) on the earth relative to the ship?
(e) at the arrival spot, relative to the arrival spot?
(f) in the radio frequencies transmitted by earth that are currently being received by the ship (e.g. if they were listening to a radio station from earth, what would be the year of its broadcast?)
The ship in question 1 was moving in a straight line away from earth. If it then started a second journey in a random direction (say, perhaps, at a 90 degree angle) how would you calculate everything from question 1 again?
What if the ship accelerated to .9c instead?