This is a thing Iïve seen on many papers dealing with Warped Extra Dimensions, specifically on slices of AdS5. But the one where it appears more clearly is a lecture by Tony Gherghetta:
Essentially what is done is that one builds a 5-dimensional theory in a slice of a Anti-De-Sitter space, the slice meaning that the fifth dimension has a small size and ends with a 4D brane at each extreme.
The principle of least action applied to the 5D action leads us to two terms (eq. 7 in the paper above), one on the bulk (the vanishing of this one leads us to the bulk equation of motion) and one on the branes. The vanishing of this second term can be accomplished in two ways:
1) the variation of the field on the branes is zero
2) the term multiplying the variation is zero on the branes (let?s call it B)
Now, all authors affirm that, in absence of extra terms on the brane, this two conditions lead to Neumann or Dirichlet conditions for the field on the branes (in the paper above this is said just after equation 10). My question is: why is that?
For scalar fields it can be shown that B equals the derivative of the field, so I can see the Neumann condition there (am I wrong?). But the 1st condition says the variation of the field is zero not the field itself. Clearly I am misunderstanding something here...