I read occasionally popular science articles and from time to time encounter issues about quantum information teleportation. (this one for example http://www.physorg.com/news193551675.html)
So far I have the following understanding of basic principles:
- after measurement entangled particles have identical random state (i.e. we can not predict the result, but we know that it will be similar for both particles).
- "decoding key" should be sent by traditional channel
As I understand the underlying process is the following:
- Some amount of entangled particles is sent to A and B.
- Particles are measured at A and B and results R (equal in both places) are recorded.
- Knowing the results A computes a "decoding key" (some function F, that F(R) has some valuable meaning) which is sent by traditional means to B.
- B applies key to it's copy of R, and thus receives information.
The benefit is that amount of information that needs to be transmitted by traditional means is small.
In case everything stated before is correct, I have the question: how is this "quantum information teleportation" process differs from just sending two identical sets of random data to both destinations by traditional means?
I could be wrong about understanding of principles of quantum information teleportation, in this case, please, correct me.