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The title question is not ment in a general context, but one in which goes to the plasmon theory.

In that case, how is are the statistics (boson vs. fermions) of plasmons determined?

And is there an effective theory describing plasmons and their interaction with photons, such that the initial electrons are absent/integrated out/already fully represented by their oscillator excitations?

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This isn't going to work because the the electrons aren't cold, the plasmons are oscillations on top of a hot plasma that carries entropy, and you need to have electrons at least as a bath to dump entropy into. You might be asking for an effective theory which is quantum, or an effective theory which is decoherent-quantum with a superoperator. The latter might be possible but not the former, because of the electron bath. Which one? –  Ron Maimon Jul 24 '12 at 2:19
@RonMaimon: I didn't ask myself that question as I'm not familiar with the second option. –  NikolajK Jul 24 '12 at 7:09

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